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Full text of "Anatomical atlas [electronic resource]: illustrative of the structure of the human body"


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THE 

ABNER WELLBORN CALHOUN 

MEDICAL LIBRARY 

1923 




Class. 



X 



BOOK- 



PRESENTED BY 



\ //■ 



ANATOMICAL 




PLATES. 



ANATOMICAL ATLAS, 



ILLUSTRATIVE OF 



THE STRUCTURE 



OF 



THE HUMAN BODY. 




BY 



HENRY H. SMITH, M.D. 

Fellow of the College of Physicians, Member of the 
Philadelphia Medical Society, &c. 



UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 
WILLIAM E. HOIINER, M.D., 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania &c 



PHILADELPHIA: 

LEA AND BLANCHARD 

184r>. 



EMORY UNIVERSITY 
THE A. W. CALHOUN MEDICAL LIBRARY 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1843, by Lea and BlAnchard, in the clerk's office 
of the district court of the United States, for the eastern district of Pennsylvania. 






T. K. AND P. G. COLLINS, PRINTERS, 

No. 1 Lodge Alley. 



PREFACE. 



In the performance of the duty which has been confided to me, of forming 
a set of Plates as an accompaniment to the text of the work entitled, 
" Special Anatomy and Histology, by Wm. E. Horner, M. D.," but which 
should, at the same time, be so extended and general, as to be consulted by 
all desiring the use of a complete set of Anatomical Plates, the present volume 
is now offered. 

The utility of drawings in illustration of a purely demonstrative branch, is 
now too well established to require any argument in its favour. Separated 
from the centre of instruction, and deprived of the advantages of the Dissecting 
Room, the ideas once so thoroughly acquired soon begin to fade, and the 
images once so distinct, become confused and mixed. A recourse to plates, 
in the absence of dead bodies, is then the only means of refreshing our 
knowledge. 

Numerous works, framed with these intentions, have long enjoyed a large 
share of professional approbation ; some from the finished style of their exe- 
cution ; others from some striking feature of simplicity, or adaptation to the 
wants of medical men. 

The claim of the present one is to have been selected from the most accu- 
rate of these, as well as from the latest Microscopical Observations on the 
Anatomy of the Tissues ; and, where plates were not deemed satisfactory 
to have been enriched by original drawings, from specimens furnished by the 
beautiful Anatomical Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. In these 
instances the cut is marked Wistar Museum, or W. M. 

In the arrangement of the work, it will be seen that reference has been 
had to the production of a volume suited to general circulation, of such a 
size as could be conveniently used in the Lecture, Dissecting, or Operating 
Room ; with a Terminology sanctioned by general usage in the United 
States, and with concomitant references on the same page, thereby saving 
to the young student much embarrassment and confusion. Lastly, it has 
been placed at such a price as will render it easy of acquirement by all. 

To the attention bestowed on the plates by the artists employed in their 
execution, is due much of their fidelity. The original drawings, as well as 
those which are copies in a reduced form, are from the pencils of Messrs. 
Pinkerton, French, and Weaver, gentlemen now most favourably known in 
this department of Anatomy. To say that the engravings are in Mr. Gilbert's 
best style, is a sufficient guarantee for their beauty, his name being now iden- 
tified with some of the finest wood engravings made in this country. 

HENRY H. SMITH, 

January, 1845. 117 South Ninth Street. 



INDEX 



THE ILLUSTRATIONS, 



EMBRACING 



SIX HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SIX FIGURES 



A Highly Finished View of the Bones of the Head facing the title-page. 

View of Cuvier's Anatomical Theatre vignette. 



PART I. 

BONES AND LIGAMENTS. 



Fig. Page 

1. Front View of Adult Skeleton 17 

2. Back View of Adult Skeleton 18 

3. Foetal Skeleton 19 

4. Cellular Structure of Femur 20 

5. Cellular and Compact Structure of Tibia .... 20 

6. Fibres of Compact Matter of Bone 20 

7. Concentric Lamellae of Bone 20 

8. Compact Matter under the Microscope 21 

9. Haversian Canals and Lacunae of Bone 21 

10. Vessels of Compact Matter 21 

11. Minute Structure of Bones 21 

12. Ossification in Cartilage 22 

13. Ossification in the Scapula 22 

14. Puncta Ossificationis in Femur 22 

15. Side View of the Spinal Column 23 

16. Epiphyses and Diaphysis of Bone 23 

17. External Periosteum 23 

18. Punctum Ossificationis in the Head 24 

19. A Cervical Vertebra 24 

20. The Atlas 24 

21. The Dentata 24 

22. Side View of the Cervical Vertebrae 25 

23. Side View of the Dorsal Vertebrae 25 

24. A Dorsal Vertebra 25 

25. Side View of the Lumbar Vertebrae 26 

26. Side View of one of the Lumbar Vertebrae . . 26 

27. Perpendicular View of the Lumbar Vertebrae . 26 

28. Anterior of Sacrum 27 

29. Posterior View of Sacrum 27 

30. The Bones of the Coccyx 27 

31. Outside View of the Innominatum 28 

32. Inside View of the Innominatum 28 

33. Anterior View of the Male Pelvis 29 

34. Anterior View of the Female Pelvis 29 

35. Front of the Thorax 30 



\ Fig. Page 

36. The First Rib 30 

( 37. General Characters of a Rib 30 

38. Front View of the Sternum 30 

I 39. Head of a Peruvian Indian 31 

| 40. Head of a Choctaw Indian 31 

) 41. Front View of the Os Frontis 31 

\ 42. Under Surface of the Os Frontis 31 

i 43. Internal Surface of the Os Frontis 32 

S 44. External Surface of the Parietal Bone 32 

s 45. Internal Surface of the Parietal Bone 32 

I 46. External Surface of the Os Occipitis 33 

> 47. Internal Surface of the Os Occipitis 33 

S 48. External Surface of the Temporal Bone 33 

49. Internal Surface of the Temporal Bone 33 

50. Internal Surface of the Sphenoid Bone 34 

51. Anterior and Inf. Surface of the Sphenoid Bone 34 

52. Posterior Surface of the Ethmoid 34 

53. Front View of the Bones of the Face 35 

54. Outside of the Upper Maxilla 35 

55. Inside of the Upper Maxilla 35 

56. Posterior Surface of the Palate Bone 36 

57. The Nasal Bones 3G 

58. The Os Unguis 36 

59. Inferior Spongy Bone 36 

60. Right Malar Bone 36 

61. The Vomer 37 

62. Inferior Maxillary Bone 37 

63. Sutures of the Vault of the Cranium 37 

< 64. Sutures of the Posterior of the Cranium 37 

< 65. Diploe of the Cranium 38 

66. Inside of the Base of the Cranium 38 

; 67. Outside of the Ba6e of the Cranium 38 

; 68. The Facial Angle 39 

' 69. The Fontanels 39 

j 70. The Os Hyoides 39 



Page 



PART I. ILLUSTRATIONS 



Fig 
71, 

72 

73. 

74. 

75. 

7G. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

8fi. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

!)(). 

HI. 

92, 

93, 

HI. 

95 

96 

!I7 

38 

99, 



Page , Fig. 

Posterior of the Scapula 40 j 100. Ligaments of the Jaw 

Axillary Margin of the Scapula 40 ! 101. Internal View of the same 

The Clavicle 40 j 102. Vertical Section of the same 

The Humerus 41 j 103. Anterior Vertebral Ligaments 

The Ulna 41 104. Posterior Vertebral Ligaments 

The Radius 41 i 105. Yellow Ligaments 

The Bones of the Carpus 42 \ 106. Costovertebral Ligaments 

The Bones of the Hand 42 107. Occipito-Altoidien Ligaments 

Aiticulation of the Carpal Bones 42 j 108. Posterior View of the same 50 

Anterior View of the Femur 43 ' 109. Upper Part of the same 50 

Posterior View of the Femur 43 \ 110. Moderator Ligaments 51 

The Tibia 43 j 111. Anterior Pelvic Ligaments 51 

The Fibula 44 \ \\% Posterior Pelvic Ligaments 51 

Anterior View of the Patella 44 ' 113. Sterno-Clavicular Ligaments 52 

Posterior View of the Patella 44 \ 114. Scapulo-Humeral Articulation 52 



Page 
, 48 
. 48 
. 48 
. 49 
. 49 
. 49 
. 50 
. 50 



The Astragalus 44 

The Navicularc 45 

The < luboid Bone 45 

The Tim e Cum iform Dunes 45 

Top of the Foot 45 

Tin- Sole of the Foot 45 

Cells in Cartilage 46 

A 1 licul r ( irtilage under the Microscope. . . 46 



116. Internal View of Elbow Joint 52 

117. Ligaments of the Wrist 53 

118. Diagram of the Carpal Synovial Membranes 53 

119. Ligaments of the Hip Joint 54 

120. Anterior View of the Knee Joint 54 

121. Posterior View of the Knee Joint 54 

122. Section of the Right Knee Joint 55 

] 23. Section of the Left Knee Joint 55 



1 ( !artilage under the Microscope 46 \ 124. Internal Side of the Ankle Joint 55 

Magnified Section of Cartilage 46 125. External Side of the Ankle Joint 55 

M.ijMifi' .I View of Fibro-Cartilagc 47 126. Posterior View of the Ankle Joint 56 

White Fibrous Tissue 47 \ 127. Ligaments on the Sole of the Foot 56 

Y< [low Fibrous Tissue 47 \ 128. Vertical Section of the Foot 56 



PART II. 

DESMOID AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS. 



129. 
130. 
131. 
132. 

133. 
134. 
135. 
136. 
137. 
138. 
139. 
140. 
141. 
142. 
143. 
144. 
145. 
146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 
150. 
151. 
152. 
153. 
154. 
155. 
156. 
157. 



Muscles on the Front of the Body, full length 
M liscles on the Back of the Body, full length 

The Cellular Tissue 

Fat Vesicles 

Blood-Vessels of Fat 

Cell Membrane of Fat Vesicles 

Magnified View of the Epidermis 

Cellular Tissue of the Skin 

Rete Mucosum, &lc. of Foot 

Epidermis and Rete Mucosum 

Cutis Vera, Magnified 

Cutaneous Papillas 

Internal Face of Cutis Vera 

Integuments of Foot under the Microscope 

Cutaneous Glands 

Sudoriferous Organs 

Sebaceous Glands and Hairs 

Perspiratory Gland Magnified 

A Hair under the Microscope 

A Hair from the Face under the Microscope 

Follicle of a Hair 

Arteries of a Hair 

Skin of the Beard, Magnified 

External Surface of the Thumb Nail ..... 

Internal Surface of the Thumb Nail 

Section of Nail of Fore Finger 

Same highly magnified 

Development of Muscular Fibre 

Another View of the same 



59 < 158. 

60 159. 

61 160. 
61 j 161. 
61 j 162. 

61 j 163. 
62)164. 

62 \ 165. 
62 j 166. 



62 


J167. 


63 


|168. 


63 


J 169. 


63 


170. 


63 


(171. 


64 


1 172. 


64 


^ 173. 


64 


\ 174. 


65; 


| 175. 


65 | 


! 176. 


65 | 


177. 


65 \ 


178. 


65^ 


179. 


66^ 


180. 


66; 


181. 


66^ 


182. 


66^ 


183. 


66 <: 


184. 


67$ 


185. 


67 I 


186. 



Arrangement of Fibres of Muscle 67 

Disks of Muscular Fibre 67 

Muscular Fibre broken transversely 67 

Striped Elementary Fibres, magnified 68 

Strise of Fibres from the Heart of an Ox . . 68 

Transverse Section of Biceps Muscle 68 

Fibres of the Pectoralis Major 68 

Attachment of Tendon to Muscle 68 

Nerve terminating in Muscle 69 

Superficial Muscles of Face and Neck 

Deep-seated Muscles of Face and Neck . . . 

Lateral View of the same 

Lateral View of Superficial Muscles of Face 
Lateral View of Deep-seated Muscles of Face 

Tensor Tarsi or Muscle of Horner 72 

Pterygoid Muscles '3 

Muscles of Neck 73 

Muscles of Tongue '3 

Fascia Profunda Colli ?3 

Superficial Muscles of Thorax 74 

Deep-seated Muscles of Thorax 74 

Front View of Abdominal Muscles 75 

Side View of Abdominal Muscles 75 

External parts concerned in Hernia 76 

Internal parts concerned in Hernia 76 

Deep-seated Muscles of Trunk 77 

Inguinal and Femoral Rings 77 

Deep-seated Muscles of Neck 78 

Superficial Muscles of Back 78 






PART II. ILLUSTRATIONS. 



F, "g- Tage ) 

187. Posterior Parietes of Chest and Abdomen . 79 '/ 

188. Under side of Diaphragm 79 } 

189. Second Layer of Muscles of Back 80 j 

190. Muscles of Vertebral Gutter 80 

191. Fourth Layer of Muscles of Back 81 

192. Muscles behind Cervical Vertebrae 81 j 

193. Deltoid Muscle 82 

194. Anterior View of Muscles of Shoulder . 

195. Posterior View of Muscles of Shoulder . 

196. Another View of the same 

197. Fascia Brachialis 

198. Fascia of the Fore-Arm 

199. Muscles on the Back of the Hand 83 ] 

200. Muscles on the Front of the Arm 84 I 

201. Muscles on the Back of the Arm 84 , 

202. Pronators of the Fore-Arm 84 

203. Deep Muscles on Front of Arm 85 '■ 



82 
82 
82 
83 
83 



Page 

Deep Muscles on Back of Arm b5 

Flexor Muscles of Fore-Arm 86 

Muscles in Palm of Hand 86 

Deep Flexors of the Fingers 86 

Superficial Extensors 87 

Deep-seated Extensors 87 

Rotator Muscles of the Thigh 87 

Muscles on the Bick of the Hip 88 

Deep Muscles on the Front of Thigh 88 

Superficial Muscles on the Front of Thigh 89 

Muscles on the Back of the Thigh 89 

Muscles on Front of Leg 89 

Muscles on Back of Leg 90 

Deep-seated Muscles on Back of Leg 90 

Muscles on the Sole of the Foot 90 

Another View of the same 90 



PART III. 

ORGANS OF DIGESTION AND GE NE P. A_TI ON. 



220. 
221. 
222. 
223. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
227. 
228 

236 

244 

252 

260 
266 

268. 
269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 
273. 
274. 
275. 
276. 
277. 
278. 
279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 
284. 
285 
286 
287 
288 



Digestive Organs in their whole length ... 93 ? 289- 

Cavity of the Mouth 93 290. 

Labial and Buccal Glands 93 ? 291. 

Teeth in the Upper and Lower Jaws 94 s 292. 

Upper Jaw, with Sockets for Teeth 94 293. 

Lower Jaw, with Sockets for Teeth 94 294. 

Under Side of the Teeth in the Upper Jaw . 94 295. 

Upper Side of the Teeth in the Lower Jaw . 94 296. 

to 235. Eight Teeth, from one side of the 297. 

Upper Jaw 95 j 298. 

to 243. Eight Teeth, from one side of the 299. 

Lower Jaw 95 < 300. 

to 251. Side View of Eight Upper Jaw 301. 

Teeth 95 302. 

to 259. Side View of Eight Lower Jaw 303. 

Teeth 96 304. 

to 265. Sections of Eight Teeth 96 305. 

to 267. Enamel and Internal Structure of j 306. 

Two of the Teeth 96 j 307. 

Bicuspis Tooth under the Microscope 97 308. 

Position of Enamel Fibres 97 309. 

Hexagonal Enamel Fibres 97 310. 

Enamel Fibres very highly magnified 97 311. 

A very highly Magnified View of Fig. 268 97 312. 

Internal portion of the Dental Tubes 98 313. 

External portion of the Dental Tubes 98 314. 

Section of the Crown of a Tooth 98 315. 

Tubes at the Root of a Bicuspis 98 316. 

Upper Surface of the Tongue 98 317. 

Under Surface of the Tongue 99 318. 

Periglottis turned off the Tongue 99 319. 

Muscles of the Tongue " | 32 °- 

Another View of the same 99 321. 

Section of the Tongue 100 322. 

Styloid Muscles, &c 10 ° 323 - 

Section of a Gustatory Papilla 100 j 324. 

. View of another Papilla 10 ° j 325 - 

. Root of the Mouth and Soft Palate 101 j 326. 

. Front View of the Pharynx and Muscles . . 101 ( 327. 

' Back View of the Pharynx and Muscles. . . 101 J 328. 

Page 11. 



Under Side of the Soft Palate 101 

A Lobule of the Parotid Gland 101 

Salivary Glands 102 

Internal Surface of the Pharynx 102 

External Surface of the Pharynx 102 

Vertical Section of the Pharynx 103 

Muscular Coat of the (Esophagus 103 

Longitudinal Section of the OEsophagus . . 1 03 

Parietes of the Abdomen 104 

Reflexions of the Peritoneum 104 

Viscera of the Chest and Abdomen 105 

Another View of the same 105 

The Intestines in Situ 106 

Stomach and (Esophagus 106 

Front View of the Stomach 107 

Interior of the Stomach 107 

The Stomach and Duodenum 107 

Interior of the Duodenum 108 

Gastric Glands 1° 8 

Mucous Coat of the Stomach 1 08 

An Intestinal Villus 108 

Its Vessels 108 

Glands of the Stomach, magnified 108 

Villus and Lacteal ] ° 8 

Muscular Coat of the Ileum 103 

Jejunum distended and dried 109 

Follicles of Lieberkuhn 109 

Glands of Brunner 1 ° 9 

Intestinal Glands 1°9 

Valvulse Cc^aniventes 109 

Ileo-Colic Valve 109 

Villi and Intestinal Follicles HO 

Veins of the Ileum nQ 

Villi filled with Chyle HO 

Peyer's Glands HO 

Villi of the Jejunum under the Microscope 110 

The Caecum H l 

The Mesocolon and Colon HI 

Muscular Coat of the Colon HI 

Muscular Fibres of the Rectum HI 



PART III. ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 
329. 
330. 
331. 
332. 
333. 
334. 
335. 
336. 
337. 
333. 
339. 
340. 
341. 
342. 
343. 
344. 
345. 
340. 
347. 
348. 
34). 
350. 
351. 
352. 
353. 
354. 
355. 
356. 
357. 
358. 
359. 
360. 
361. 
362. 
363. 
364. 
365. 
366. 
367. 
368. 
369. 



Pa 

Curvatures of the Large Intestine 1 

Mucous Follicles of the Rectum 1 

Rectal Pouches 1 

Follicles of the Colon, highly magnified . . 1 

Folds and Follicles of the Stomach 1 

Follicles, &c. of the Jejunum 1 

Villi and Follicles of the Ileum 1 

Muciparous Glands of the Stomach 1 

Ileum inverted, *Scc 1 

Glands of Peyer magnified 1 

Peritoneum of the Liver injected 1 

Liver in Situ 1 

Under surface of the Liver 1 

Hepatic Vein 1 

Parenchyma of the Liver 1 

Hepatic Blood-Vessels 1 

Biliary Ducts 1 

Angular Lobules of the Liver 1 

Rounded Hepatic Lobules 1 

Coats of the Gall Bladder 1 



Gall Bladder injected 1 

Vena Portarum 1 

External Face of the Spleen 1 

Internal Face of the Spleen 1 

Splenic Vein 1 

Pancreas, &c, injected 1 

Urinary Organs 1 

Right Kidney and Capsule 1 

Left Kidney and Capsule 1 

Kidney under the Microscope 118 

The Ureter 118 

Section of the Right Kidney 118 

Section of the Left Kidney 1 

Pyramids of Malpighi 119 

Lobes of the Kidney 119 

Renal Arteries, &c., injected 119 

Section of the Kidney highly magnified . . 120 

Corpora Malpighiana 120 

Same magnified \OQ 

Tubuli Urinifcri 120 

Corpora Wolfiana 120 



Fig. 

370. 

371. 

372. 

373. 

374. 

375. 

376. 

377. 

378. 

379. 

380. 
5 381. 
s382. 
i 383. 
|384. 
^385. 
\ 386. 
1 387. 
5388. 
1 389. 
5390. 
J391. 
j 392. 

393. 
| 394. 
^395. 
| 396. 
1397. 
| 398. 
i 399. 
1 400. 

Uoi. 

402. 
403. 
404. 

405. 
406. 
407. 
408. 
409. 
410. 



Page 

The Bladder and Urethra, full length 121 

Muscular Coat of the Bladder 121 

Another View of the same 121 

Sphincter Apparatus of the Bladder 122 

Prostate and Vesiculae Seminales 122 

Side View of the Pelvic Viscera 122 

The Glans Penis injected 123 

The Penis distended and dried 123 

Section of the same 123 

Vertical Section of the Male Pelvis, &c. . . 123 

Septum Pectiniforme 123 

Arteries of the Penis 123 

Vertical Section of the Urethra 123 

Vesiculae Seminales injected 123 

Muscles of the Male Perineum 124 

Interior of the Pelvis, seen from above ... 124 

Testis in the Foetus 125 

Diagram of the Descent of the Testis .... 125 

Tunica Vaginalis Testis 125 

Transverse Section of the Testis 125 

Relative Position of the Prostate, &.c 126 

Vas Deferens , . . 126 

Vertical Section of the Bladder 126 

The Testicle injected with Mercury 126 

Another View 126 

Minute Structure of the Testis 126 

Female Generative Organs 127 

Another View of the same 127 

External Organs in the Foetus 127 

Muscles of the Female Perineum 127 

Side View of the Female Pelvis, &c 128 

Relative Position of the Female Organs .. 128 

Section of the Uterus, &,c 128 

Fallopian Tubes, Ovaries, &c 129 

Front View of the Mammary Gland 129 

The same after removal of the Skin 129 

Side View of the Breast 130 

Origin of Lactiferous Ducts 130 

Lactiferous Tubes during Lactation 130 

Minute Termination of a Tube 130 

Ducts injected; after Sir Astley Cooper . . 130 



PART IV. 

ORGANS OF RESPIRATION AND CIRCULATION. 



411. Front View of the Thyroid Cartilage 133 j 427. 

412. Side View of the Thyroid Cartilage 133 J 428. 

413. Posterior of the Arytenoid Cartilage ] 33 I 429. 

414. Anterior of the Arytenoid Cartilage . . 1 33 430. 

415. Epiglottis Cartilage 133 I 431. 

416. Cricoid Cartilage 133 > 432. 

417. Ligaments of the Larynx 134 ' 433. 

418. Side View of the same 134 434. 

419. The Thyroid Gland ] 34 435. 

420. Internal Surface of the Larynx 134 436. 

42 1 . Crico-Thyroid Muscles 135 437. 

422. Crico-Arytenoid Muscles 135 438. 

423. Articulations of the Larynx 135 439. 

421. Vertical Section of the Larynx 135 \ 440. 

425. The Vocal Ligaments 1 35 ' 411. 

426. Thymus Gland 135 | 442. 



Front View of the Lungs 136 

Back View of the Lungs . 136 

The Trachea and Bronchia 137 

Lungs, Heart, &c 137 

First appearance of the Blood-vessels 138 

Capillary Vessels magnified 138 

Another View of the same 138 

Blood Globules 138 

Another View of the same 138 

The Mcdiastina 1 39 

Parenchyma of the Lung 139 

The Heart and Pericardium 139 

Anterior View of the Heart 139 

Posterior View of the Heart ] 39 

Anterior View of its Muscular Structure . . 140 

Posterior View of the same ... 140 



Rige 12. 



P A R T I V . ILLUSTRATIONS 



FiL'. 

413. 
444. 
445. 
446. 

417. 
448. 
449, 
450. 
451. 

452. 
453. 
454. 
455. 

45G. 
457. 
458. 
451). 
460. 
461. 
462. 
463. 
464. 
465. 
466. 
467. 
466. 

46?. 
470. 
471. 
472. 
473. 
474. 
475. 



Page ' Fig. 

Interior of the Right Ventricle 140 476. 

Interior of tlie Lett Ventricle 140 177. 

Mitral Valve, the size of life 140 478. 

The Auriculo-Vcntricular Valves 141; 479. 

Section of the Ventricles 141 < 480. 

The Arteries from the Arch of the Aorta . 141 ,' 481. 

The Arteries of the Neck, the size of life . . 142 \ 482. 

The External Carotid Artery 143 I 483. 

A Front View of the Arteries of the Head > 484. 

and Neck 143 \ 485. 

The Internal Maxillary Artery 144 j 486. 

Vertebral &, Carotid Arteries with the Aorta 144 487. 

Axillary and Brachial Arteries 144 ' 488. 

The Brachial Artery 145 \ 489. 

Its Division at the Elbow 145 j 490. 

One of the Anomalies of the Brachial Artery 145 j 

Radial and Ulnar Arteries 146 ? 491. 

Another View of the same ] 46 \ 492. 

The Arc us Sublimis and Profundus 146 > 493. 

The Aorta in its entire length 147 j 494. 

Arteries of the Stomach and Liver 147 I 

Superior Mesenteric Artery 148 > 405. 

Inferior Mesenteric Artery 148/ 496. 

Abdominal Aorta 14.9 \ 497. 

Primitive Iliac and Femoral Arteries .... 149 / 498. 

Perineal Arteries of the Male 150 \ 499. 

Position of the Arteries in the Inguinal ', 500. 

Canal 150 \ 501. 

Internal Iliac Artery 151 j 502. 

Femoral Artery 151 j 503. 

Gluteal and Ischiatic Arteries 151 \ 504. 

Branches of the Ischiatic Artery 151 \ 505. 

Popliteal Artery 152 \ 506. 

Anterior Tibial Artery 152 507. 

Posterior Tibial Artery 152 { 508. 



Page 
Superficial Arteries on the Top of the Foot 153 
!> ep-seated Arteries on the Top of the Foot 153 

Posterior Tibial Artery at the Ankle 153 

The Plantar Arteries 153 

Arteries and Veins of the Face and Neck . 154 

Great Vessels from the Heart 155 

External Jugular Vein ] 55 

Lateral View of the Vertebral Sinuses .... 156 
Posterior View of the Vertebral Sinuses . . 156 
Anterior View of the Vertebral Sinuses . . . 156 

Superficial Veins of the Arm 157 

The same at the Elbow 157 

The Veins of the Hand 157 

The Great Veins of the Trunk 158 

Relative positions of the Arteries and Veins 

of the Trunk 158 

The Venae Cavre ] 59 

The Vena Portarum ] 59 

Deep Veins of the back of the Leg 159 

Relative positions of the Veins to the Arte- 
ries in the Arm 160 

Superficial Veins of the Thigh 1 60 

Saphena Vein 1 60 

Superficial Veins of the Leg ] 60 

Lymphatics of the Upper Extremity ..... 161 
The Lymphatics and Glands of the Axilla . 1 61 
The Femoral and Aortic Lymphatics .... 161 
The Lymphatics of the Small Intestines . . 162 

The Thoracic Duct 162 

The Lymphatics of the Groin 1 62 

Superficial Lymphatics of the Thigh 162 

Lymphatics of the Jejunum 1 63 

Deep Lymphatics of the Thigh 163 

Superficial Lymphatics of the Leg 163 

Deep Lymphatics of the Leg 163 



PART V. 



THE NEP.YOUS SYSTEM AND SENSES. 



509. Dura Mater Cerebri and Spinalis 166 j 527. 

510. Anterior View of the Brain and Spinal Mar- \ 528. 
row 1 66 529. 

511. Anterior View of the Spinal Marrow, &c. . 166 < 530. 

512. Lateral View of the Spinal Marrow, &c. . . 167 I 531. 

513. Posterior View of the Spinal Marrow, &c. 167 < 532. 

514. Decussation of Mitischelli 167 ; 533. 

515. Origins of the Spinal Nerves 167 ; 534. 

516. Anterior View of the Spinal Marrow and j 535. 

Nerves 168 536. 

517. Posterior View of the Spinal Marrow and j 537. 

Nerves 168 J 538. 

518. Anterior Spinal Commissure 16S ', 539. 

519. Posterior Spinal Commissure 16S j 540. 

520. Transverse Section of the Spinal Marrow . 168 541. 

521. Dura Mater and Sinuses 169 542. 

522. Sinuses laid open 1 69 ; 543. 

523. Sinuses at the Base of the Cranium 169 544. 

524. Pons Varolii, Cerebellum, &c 169 545. 

525. Superior Face of the Cerebellum 170 > 546. 

526. Inferior Face of the Cerebellum 170 | 547. 



Another View of the Cerebellum 170 

View of the Arbor Vitas, &c 1 70 

Posterior View of the Medulla Oblongata . 171 

A Vertical Section of the Cerebellum 171 

Another Section of the Cerebellum 171 

Convolutions of the Cerebrum 171 

The Cerebrum entire -. . . . 172 

A Section of its Base 173 

The Corpus Callosum entire 173 

Diverging Fibres of the Cerebrum, &c. ... 174 

Vertical Section of the Head 175 

Section of the Corpus Callosum 175 

Longitudinal Section of the Brain 175 

View of a Dissection by Gall 175 

The Commissures of the Brain 176 

Lateral Ventricles 176 

Corpora Striata- Fornix, &c. ... 176 

Fifth Ventricle and Lyra 176 

Another View of the Lateral Ventricles . . 177 

Another View of the Ventricles 177 

Origins of the 4th and 5th pairs of Nerves . 177 



Page 13. 



Fig. 

548. 

549. 

550. 

551. 

552. 

553. 

554. 

555. 

556. 

557. 

558. 

559. 

560. 

561. 

562. 

563. 

561. 

565. 

566. 

567. 

568. 

569. 

570. 

571. 

572. 

573. 

574. 

575. 

576. 

577. 

578. 

579. 

580. 

581. 

582. 

583. 

584. 

585. 

586. 

587. 

588. 

589. 

590. 

591. 

592. 



PART V. ILLUSTRATIONS, 

Tage j Fi° 
<593. 

A Front View of the Stapes 



187 
187 



Page 

The Circle of Willis 1~ 8 \ 593. Another View of the Malleus 187 

A Side View of the Nose 178J594. A Front View of the Stapes 

The Nasal Cartilages 178 \ 535. Magnified View of the Stapes 

Bones and Cartilages of the Nose 178 S 596. Magnified View of the Incus 

Oval Cartilages, &c 178| 597. Cellular Structure of the Malleus 187 

Schneiderian Membrane 178 ^598. Magnified View of the Labyrinth 188 

External Parietes of the Left Nostril 179 < 599. Natural Size of the Labyrinth 188 

Arteries of the Nose I 79 \ 600. Labyrinth laid open, and magnified 188 

Pituitary Membrane injected 179 j 601. Labyrinth, natural size 1H8 

Posterior Nares 179^ 602. Labyrinth of a Foetus 18J 

Front View of the Eye 1 80 J 603. Another View of the same 189 



Side View of the Eye 180 

Posterior View of the Eyelids, &c 180 

Glandulse Palpebrarum 180 

Lachrymal Canals 1 SI 

Muscles of the Eye Ball 181 

Side View of the Eye Ball 181 

Longitudinal Section of the Eye Ball 181 



604. Nerves of the Labyrinth \S[) 

605. A View of the Vestibule, &c 190 

j 606. Its Soft Parts, &c \(jq 

607. An Ampulla and Nerve ] 90 

608. Plan of the Cochlea 191 

609. Lamina Spiralis, &c ] 91 

610. The Auditory Nerve 191 

Horizontal Section of the Eye Ball 182 I 611. Nerve on the Lamina Spiralis 192 

Anterior View of a Transverse Section .... 183 j 612. Arrangement of the Cochlea 192 

Posterior View of a Transverse Section . . . 183 j 613. Veins of the Cochlea, highly magnified . . . 192 

Choroid Coat injected 1 S3 ? 614. A View of the Opening of the Eustachian 

Veins of the Choroid Coat 1 83 j Tube in the Throat 193 

The Iris 183 615. Origin of the Portio Mollis of the Seventh 

The Retina and Lens 183 Pair of Nerves 193 

External View of the same 184 61 6. The Olfactory Nerves 193 

Vessels in the Conjunctiva 184 ] 617. The Optic and seven other Pairs of Nerves 194 

Retina, injected and magnified 184 j 618. Third, Fourth, and Sixth Pairs of Nerves . 194 

Iris highly magnified , 184 619. Distribution of the Fifth Pair 194 



Vitreous Humour and Lens 184 > 620. 

Crystalline Adult Lens 184 621. 

Lens of the Foetus, magnified 184 > 622. 

Side View of the Lens 184 623. 

Membrana Pupillaris 185 624. 

Another View of the same 185 j 625. 

Posterior View of the same 185 < 626. Nerves of the Front of the Arm 198 

A View of the Left Ear 186 627. Nerves of the Back of the Arm 198 

Its Sebaceous Follicles 186 < 628. Lumbar and Ischiatic Nerves 199 

Cartilages of the Ear 186 £ 629. Posterior Branches to the Hip, &c 199 



The Facial Nerve 195 

The Hypo-Glossal Nerve 195 

A Plan of the Eighth Pair of Nerves 196 

The Distribution of the Eighth Pair 196 

The Great Sympathetic Nerve 197 

The Brachial Plexus 198 



The same with its Muscles 186 

The Cranial Side of the Ear 186 

Meatus Auditorius Externus, &c 186 

Labyrinth and Bones of the Ear 187 

Full View of the Malleus 187 

The Incus 187 



630. Anterior Crural Nerve 199 

631. Anterior Tibial Nerve 200 

632. Branches of the Popliteal Nerve 200 

633. Posterior Tibial Nerve on the Leg 200 

634. Posterior Tibial Nerve on the Foot 200 



Page 14. 



PART FIRST. 



BONES: 

NINETY-TWO FIGURES. 

LIGAMENTS: 

THIRTY-SIX FIGURES. 



FIG. l 




FIG. I. 

A FRONT VIEW OF THE ADULT SKELETON. 



1. Frontal Bone. 

2. Parietal Bone. 

3. Nasal Bones. 

4. Occipital Bone. 

5. Orbits of Eyes. 

6. Malar Bone. 

7. Upper and Lower 
Maxilla. 



8. Nasal Cavity. j 15 

9. Cervical Vertebrae. 16 

10. Clavicle. 17 

11. Scapula. 18, 

12. Sternum. 19, 

13. Ribs. 20. 

14. 14. Dorsal and 21. 
Lumbar Vertebrae. I 22. 

I ige 1 r. 



Innominata. 

Sacrum. 

Humerus. 

Radius. 

Ulna. 

Carpus. 

Metacarpus. 

Phalanges of Hand. 



23. Femur. 

24. Patella. 

25. Fibula. 

26. Tibia. 

27. Calcis& Astragalus. 

28. Cuneiform & Cuboid. 

29. Metatarsus. 

30. Phalanges of Toes. 



' FIG. 2. 




FIG. 2. 

A BACK VIEW OF THE ADULT SKELETON. 

1. Occipital Bone. j 5. Lumbar Vertebrae. \ 8. Trochanter Major. 

2. Cervical Vertebrae. \ 6.6. Ilia. 

3. Scapula. \ „ m T . . 

\ 7.7. Ischia. 



4. Dorsal Vertebrae. 



9. Trochanter Minor. 
10. Condyles of Femur. 



P&ge is. 



FIG. 3. 




FIG. 3 

A SIDE VIEW OF THE FCETAL SKELETON, SHOWING THE 
. GREAT EXPANSION OF THE CHEST AND THE 
IMPERFECT DEVELOPEMENT OF 
THE BONES. 

Page 19 



FIG. 4. 



FIG. 





FIG. 6. 



FIG. 7. 



2 ,y 





FIG. 4. 

A Longitudinal section of a Femur, shoe- 
ing the Cellular Structure at its ex 

TREMITY. 



FIG. 5. 
A View op a section of the Tibia, show 

ING 

1. The Compact Structure. 

2. The Cellular Structure. 

3. A Transverse section of the Femur, show- 

ing its Compact Substance, its Internal 
Cellular Structure, and the Medullary 
Canal. 



TEXTURE OF BONES. 

FIG. 6. 

The Texture of a Bone as shown in a Hu- 
merus, AFTER MACERATION IN DILUTE ACID. 

1.1. The Compact Matter as usually seen. 

2. 2. The same split, so as to show the Lon- 
gitudinal Fibres composing it. 

3. The Internal Cellular Matter. . 

4. The Bone seen under its Articular Car- 
tilage. (From the Wistar Museum.) 



FIG. 7. 

A view of the Concentric Lamella of the 

Compact Matter of a Bone. (W. Mus.) 



Fane 20. 



FIG. 8. 




FIG. 9. 





FIG. 11. 




TEXTURE 
FIG. 8. 

A Transverse section of the Compact Mat- 
ter as seen under the Microscope ; magni- 
fied FIFTEEN DIAMETERS. 

1. Periosteal or Outer Layer. 

2. Medullary or Internal Layer. 

The intermediate Haversian systems of La- 
mellae, each perforated by a Haversian 
Canal, are also shown. 



FIG. 9. 
A Transverse section of an old Tibia, 

SHOWING THE APPEARANCE OF THE LAMELLAE 
SURROUNDING THE HAVERSIAN CaNALS, AND 
ALSO THE APPEARANCE OF THE LACUNiE, 
WHEN THEIR PORES ARE FILLED WITH LI- 
QUID ; MAGNIFIED. 

Page 



OF BONES. 

FIG. 10. 

A Longitudinal section of the Compact tis- 
sue OF THE SHAFT OF A LONG BONE SHOWING 
THE VESSELS; MAGNIFIED. 

1. Arterial Canal. 

2. Venous Canal. 

3. Dilatation of another Venous Canal. 



FIG. U. 

The Minute Structure of a bone magnified 
300 diameters. 

A Haversian Canal surrounded by its 

concentric Lamella?. 
The same with its Purkinjean Corpus- 

cules and converging tubu'i. 
The area of one of the canals. 
Direction of the Lamellae of the great 

Medullary Canal. 
The outlines of three other canals, showing 

their form and arrangement in the entire 

bone, are also seen. 

21. 



FIG. 13. 



FIG. 12. 





FIG. 14. 




FIG. 12. 

A MAGNIFIED VIEW OF A VERTICAL SECTION OF 

Cartilage from a new-born rabbit, show- 
ing THE PROGRESS TOWARDS OSSIFICATION. 

1. The Ordinary appearance of Temporary 
Cartilage. 

1. The same, more highly magnified. 

2. The Primary Cells beginning to assume 
the linear direction. 

2. The same, more highly magnified. 

3. The Ossification is extending in the inter- 

cellular spaces, and the rows of cells are 
seen resting in the cavities so formed, the 
Nuclei being more separated than above. 
3. The same, magnified more highly. 



TEXTUIIE OF BONES. 

FIG. 13. 

The Scapula of a Fcetus at the seventh 
month, showing the linear direction of 
the Ossification. 

1. 2. 3. Are Epiphyses as yet in the state 
of Cartilage. 



FIG. 14. 

A Vertical section of the Knee-Joint of 
an infant, showing the puncta ossifica- 
tionis in the shaft and epiphyses of the 
Femur and Tibia, as well as in the 
Patella. 



Page 22. 



FIG. 15. 



FIG. 16. 




FIG. 17. 




DEVELOPEMENT OF BONES, 
FIG. 15. j FIG. 16. 

A Lateral View of the Spinal Column, \ A Young Femur, showing, at 
showing its Curvatures and Internal 
Structure. 

1. Atlas. 

2. Dentata. 

3. Seventh Cervical Vertebra. 

4. Twelfth Dorsal Vertebra. 

5. Fifth Lumbar Vertebra. 
C. First piece of Sacrum. 

7. Last piece of Sacrum. ^* *'• 

8. Coccyx. 

9. A Spinous Process. \ ^ HE External Periosteum laid open and 
10. 10. Intervertebral Foramina. turned off from a young Humerus. (W.M.) 

Page 23. 



1. 2. 3. 5. the Epiphyses. 

4. The Diaphysis. 

2.3. afterwards become Apophyses. 

(Wistar Museum.) 



FIG. 18. 




FIG. 19. 




FIG. 20. 



FIG. 21. 





BONES OF THE TRUNK. 



FIG. 18. 



A View of the Punctum Ossificationis in the 
Flat Bones of the Head of a Foetus — 
The Radiating Lines from the Central 
Point are also shown. 



FIG. 19. 

The General Characters of a Cervical 
Vertebra. 

1. Upper Face of the Body. 

2. Spinal Canal. 

3. Half of an Intervertebral Foramen. 

4. Bifid Spinous Process. 

5. Bifid Transverse Process. 

6. Vertebral Foramen. 

7. Superior Oblique Process. 

8. Inferior Oblique Process. 

Fage 



FIG. 20. 

The Atlas. 

1. Anterior Tubercle. 

2. Articular Face for the Dentata. 

3. Posterior Surface of Spinal Canal. 
4.4. Intervertebral Notch. 

5. Transverse Process. 

6. Foramen for Vertebral Artery. 

7. Superior Oblique Process. 

8. Tubercle for the Transverse Ligament. 



FIG. 21. 

The Dentata. 

1. The Body. 

2. Processus Dentatus. 

3. Facet for Articulating with the Atlas. 

4. Foramen for the Vertebral Artery. 

5. Spinous Process. 

6. Inferior Oblique Process. 

7. Superior Oblique Process. 

24. 



FIG. 22. 





FIG. 24. 




. BONES OF 

FIG. 22. 
A Lateral View of the Cervical Verte- 
brae. 

1. Atlas. 

2. Processus Dentatus of the second Vertebra. 

3. Its Superior Oblique Process. 

4. Its Spinous Process. 

5. 6. Upper and Lower Oblique Processes, 

showing their inclination. 
7. Last Cervical Vertebra. 



THE SPUME. 

4. Articulating Face for the Head of a Rib. 

5. Articulating Face for the Tubercle of a 
Rib. 

6. Superior Oblique Process. 

7. Inferior Oblique Process. 



FIG. 23. 

A Lateral View of the Twelve Dorsal 
Vertebrae. 

1. First Dorsal Vertebra. 

2. Twelfth Dorsal Vertebra. 

3. A Spinous Process. 



FIG. 24. 
General Characters of a Dorsal Vertebra. 

1. The Body. 

2. Portion of the Face for the Head of a Rib. 

3. Superior Face of the Body. 

4. Superior half of the Intervertebral Notch. 

5. Inferior half of the Intervertebral Notch. 

6. Spinous Process. 

7. Articular Face for the Tubercle of a Rib. 

8. Two Superior Oblique Processes. 

9. Two Inferior Oblique Processes. 



Page 25. 



FIG. 25. 





FIG. 27. 




FIG. 25. 
A Lateral View of the Five Lumbar Ver 

TEBR.E. 

1. First Lumbar Vertebra. 

2. Superior Oblique Process. 

3. Spinous Process. 

4. Inferior Oblique Process. 

5. Last Lumbar Vertebra. 



BONES OF THE SPINE. 

I 5. Spinous Process. 

6. Transverse Process. 

7. Two Superior Oblique Processes. 

8. Two Inferior Oblique Processes. 



FIG. 26. 

A Lateral View of a Lumbar Verteera. 

1. The Body. 

2. Superior Articular Face of the Body. 

3. Superior half of the Intervertebral Notch. 

4. Inferior half of the Intervertebral Notch. 



FIG. 27. 

Perpendicular View of a Ldmbar Ver- 
tebra. 

Face for the Intervertebral Substance. 

Anterior Surface of the Body. 

Spinous Process. 

Transverse Process. 

Oblique Process. 

A portion of the Bony Bridges. 

The Spinal Foramen. 



Page 26. 



FIG. 28. 





FIG. 30. 




BONES OF 

FIG. 28. 
An Anterior View of the Sacrum. 

1. Articular Face for the Last Lumbar Ver- 
tebra. 

2. Articular Face for the Coccyx. 

3. Promontory of the Sacrum. 

4. Line marking the former pieces of the 
Sacrum. 

5. The First Sacral Foramen. 

6. The Fourth Sacral Foramen. 

7. A portion of the Sacro-Sciatic Notch. 

8. Alse of the Sacrum. 

9. Oblique Processes for articulating with 
the Last Lumbar Vertebra. 

10. Line of Separation of the last pieces of 
the Bone. 

FIG. 29. 
A Posterior View of the Sacrum. 

1. First Spinous Process. 

2. Fourth Spinous Process. 

3. Roughness for the Muscles and Fascia 
of the Back. 



THE SPINE. 

4.4. Foramina for the Posterior Sacral 

Nerves. 

5. Remnant of an Oblique Process. 

6. Roughness for the Sacro-Sciatic Liga- 
ments. 

7. Articular Face for the Fifth Lumbar 
Vertebra. 

8. Superior Oblique Processes of the First 
Piece of the Sacrum. 

9. Articular Face for the Second Bone of 
the Coccyx. 

10. Bifid Spinous Process of the Last Piece 
of the Sacrum. 

11. The First Bone of the Coccyx. 



FIG. 30. 

The Four Bones of the Coccyx. 

1. First Bone. 

2. 3. Processes to join the Sacrum. 

4. 5. The Notches to form the Foramen for 

the Sixth Sacral Nerve. 
6. The Last Bone of the Coccyx 



Page 27. 



FIG. 31. 



FIG. 32. 





OSSA INN 
FIG. 31. 
Outside of the Innominatum op the Right 
Side. 

1. Dorsum of the Ilium. 

2. Ischium. 

3. Pubis. 

4. Crest of the Ilium. 

5. Surface for the Gluteus Medius. 

6. Surface for the Gluteus Minimus. 

7. Surface for the Gluteus Maximus. 

8. Anterior Superior Spinous Process. 

9. Anterior Inferior Spinous Process. 

10. Posterior Superior Spinous Process. 

11. Posterior Inferior Spinous Process. 

12. Spine of the Ischium. 

13. Greater Sacro-Sciatic Notch. 

14. Lesser Sacro-Sciatic Notch. 

15. Tuber Ischii. 

16. Ascending Ramus of the Ischium. 

17. Body of the Pubis. 

18. Ramus of the Pubis. 

19. Acetabulum. 

20. Thyroid Foramen. 



OMINATA. 
j FIG. 32. 

; Inside of the Innominatum of the Right 
Side. 

1. Surface for the Sacro-Iliac Ligaments. 

2. Ischium. 

3. Body of Pubis. 

4. Anterior Superior Spinous Process. 

5. Anterior Inferior Spinous Process. 

6. Posterior Superior Spinous Process. 

7. Posterior Inferior Spinous Process. 

8. Greater Sacro-Sciatic Notch. 

9. Plane of the Ilium. 

10. Venter of the Ilium 

11. The portion of the Venter which is con- 
tinuous with the Alas of the Sacrum. 

12. Linea Ilio Pectinea. 

13. Spine of Ischium. 

14. Tuber Ischii. 

15. Line of attachment of the Greater Sa- 
cro-Sciatic Ligament. 

16. Point of attachment of the Erector Penis, 
or Clitoridis Muscle. 

17. Symphysis Pubis. 

18. Ilio-Pectineal Protuberance or Boss. 

19. Groove for the Obturator Vessels and 
Nerve. 

20. Foramen Thyroideum. 



Fage 28. 



FIG. 33. 





THE PELVIS 



FIG. 33. 

An Anterior View of the Male Pelvis, 
showing the peculiar shape of the su- 
PERIOR Strait ; of the Foramen Ovale, 

AND OF THE ARCH OF THE PUBS — WHEREIN 
IT DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE FEMALE. 



3. 4. The Transverse Diameter, measuring 
5 inches. 

5. 5. > The Two Oblique Diameters, measur- 

6. 6. $ ing 4| inches each. 



FIG. 34. 

An Anterior View of the Female Pelvis, 
showing the shape and dlameters of the 
Superior Strait. 

1. 2. The A ntero- Posterior Diameter, mea- 
suring 4 inches. 



The difference in the Shape of the Arch of 
the Pubs, in the Foramen Thyroideum 
and in the Superior and Inferior Straits, 
are the principal objects of interest between 
the Male and Female Pelves. 



Page 29. 




FIG. 36. 




FIG. 38. 



FIG. 37. 





THE THORAX 



FIG. 35. 



A Front View of the Thorax. 

1 First Bone of the Sternum. 

2 Second Bone of the Sternum. 

3 Third Bone or Ensiform Cartilage. 

4. First Dorsal Vertehra. 

5. Last or Twelfth Dorsal Vertebra. 
First Rib. 
Its Head. 
Its Neck. 
Its Tubercle. 

Seventh or Last True Rib. 
11. Costal Cartilages. 
False or Floating Ribs. 
Groove for the Intercostal Artery. 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 



FIG. 36. 
A View of the Upper Side of the First 
Rib of the Right Side, Half the Size uF 
Nature. 

1. The Head. 

2. The Tubercle. 

3. Anterior Surface. 

4. Groove for the Subclavian Artery. 

5. Groove for the Subclavian Vein. 

6. Anterior Extremity for the Cartilage. 

7. Tubercle for the Scalenus Anticus Muscle. 



FIG. 37. 



General Characters of the other Ribs — 
seen on their upper and under surface. 

The Left Hand Figure is the Upper Face of the Rib. 

1. Head of the Rib. 

2. Its Tubercle. 

3. Anterior Extremity for the attachment of the 
Costal Cartilage. 

4. Groove for the Artery and Nerve. 

5. Angle of the Rib. 

The Right Hand Figure is the Under Surface of 
the Rib. 

1. The Head. 

2. Its Tubercle. 

3. Anterior Extremity. 

4. Groove for Intercostal Artery and Nerve 

5. Angle of the Rib. (Wistar Museum.') 



FIG. 38. 
A Front View of the Stsp.num. 

1. First Piece. 

2. Second Piece. 

3. Ensiform Cartilage, or Third Piece. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



Articular Face for the Clavicle. 
Articular Face for the First Rib. 
Articular Face for the Second Rib. 
8. 9. 10. Articular Faces for the Last Five True 
Ribs. {Wistar Museum.) 



Bige 30. 



FIG. 39. 



FIG. 40. 





FIG. 41. 





THE CRANIUM. 
FIG. 39. 
A Lateral View of the Head of a Peru- 
vian Indian, showing the flatness of the 
Os Frontis- and Occipitis, produced by 
pressure. (Wistar Museum.) 



6. Notch for the Supra-Orbitar Nerve. 

7. Nasal Protuberance. 

8. Semicircular Ridge for the Temporal 
Muscle. 

9. Nasal Spine. 



FIG. 40. 

A Front View of the Head of a Choctaw 
Indian, showing the same ; produced in 
accordance with the fashion of their 
tribe. (Wistar Museum.') 



FIG. 41. 

A Front View of the External Surface of 
the Os Frontis. 

Frontal Protuberance of the Right Side. 
Superciliary Ridge. 
Supra-Orbitar Ridge. 
External Angular Process. 
Internal Angular Process. 

Page 



FIG. 42. 
View of the Lower Part of the Os 
Frontis. ( Wistar Museum.) 

Line of Junction of the two Halves of 
the Bone. 

Frontal Protuberances. 
Supra-Orbitar Notch. 
Nasal Spine and Space, filled by the Eth- 
moid Bone. 
Frontal Sinuses. 
Orbitar Plates. 
External Angular Process. 
The depression for the Lachrymal Gland, 
is seen in the dark surface just within the 
line of reference. 
Surface for the Temporal Muscle. 



FIG. 43. 





FIG. 45. 




THE CRANIUM 



FIG. 43. 
A View of the Internal Surface of the Os 
Frontis. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. Serrated Edge for Junction with the Parietal 
Bones, and Groove for the Superior Lon- 
gitudinal Sinus. 

2. Ridge for the attachment of the Falx Major. 

3. Foramen Ccecum. 

4. Nasal Spine and Surface for the Ethmoid 
Bone. 

5. The Openings of the Frontal Sinuses. 

6. The Orbitar Plates. 

7. The External Angular Process. 

8. Serrated Surface for the Sphenoid Bone. 

9. The Line of Junction of the Parietal Bones. 

10. A Depression made by the Glands of Pac- 
chioni. 

11. The Surface for the Squamous portion of the 
Temporal Bone. 

FIG. 44. 
The External Surface of the Left Pari- 
etal Bone. 

1 . The Superior or Sagittal Surface. 

2. The Inferior or Squamous Surface. 

Pag6 



3. The Anterior or Coronal Surface. 

4. The Posterior or Lambdoidal Surface. 

5. The Ridge for the attachment of the Tem- 
poral Fascia ; the Parietal Protuberance is at 
the point of the Figure. 

6. The Parietal Foramen. 

7. The Anterior Inferior, or Elongated Angle. 

8. The Posterior Inferior, or Truncated Angle. 



FIG. 45. 

The Internal Surface of the Left Pari- 
etal Bone. 

1. The Surface for the Bone of the opposite 
Side. 

2. The Surface for the Temporal Bone. 

3. The Surface for the Frontal Bone. 

4. The Surface for the Occipital Bone. 

5. Part of the Groove for the Superior Longi- 
tudinal Sinus. 

6. The Internal Orifice of the Parietal Foramen. 

7. Anterior Inferior Angle and Groove for the 
Middle Artery of the Dura Mater. 

8. The Posterior Inferior Angle and Groove for 
a portion of the Lateral Sinus. 

32. 



FIG. 46. 



piiinifti 




FIG. 47. 




FIG. 48. 



FIG. 49. 





FIG. 46. 

The External Surface 
the Occipital Bone. 



of 



Superior Semicircular Ridge. 
External Occipital Protuberance. 
Portion for the attachment of 
the Ligamentum Nuchae. 
Inferior Semicircular Ridge. 
Foramen Magnum. 
Condyle of the Right Side. 
Point of the Posterior Condy- 
loid Foramen. 

Point of the Anterior Condy- 
loid Foramen. 

External Part of the Jugular 
Eminence. 

Part of the Jugular Foramen. 
Basilar Process. 
Points of attachment of the 
Odontoid Ligaments. 
Surface for the Parietal Bones. 
Surface for the Mastoid portion 
of the Temporal Bone. 



8, 

9, 

\ 10. 
[ 11. 

\ 

12, 

L 

J 14 
15 



FIG. 47. 

The Internal Surface ofthe 
Occipital Bone. (W. M.) 

1. Foramen Magnum. 

2. Ridge for the Falx Minor, and 
depression for a small Sinus. 

3. Internal Occipital Protuberance, 
and the depression strongly 
marked in this Bone for the 
Torcular Herophili. 

4.4. Lateral Limbs of the Occipital 
Cross, and depression for the 
Lateral Sinus. 

.*. Surface for the Parietal Bones. 

6, Jugular Eminence. 



THE CRANIUM. 

Jugular Fossa, for the trans- 
mission of the Jugular Vein, 
and the Eighth Pair of Nerves. 
Internal Orifice of the Poste- 
rior Condyloid Foramen. 
Surface for the Petrous portion 
of the Temporal Bone. 
The Condyles. 

The Surface for the Sphenoid 
Bone; or, the Anterior Extrem- 
ity of the Basilar Process. 
Exterior Edge of the Basilar 
Gutter. 

Surface for the Mastoid portion 
of the Temporal Bone. 
Depression lor the Cerebellum. 
Depression for the Posterior 
Lobes of the Cerebrum. The 
marks made by its convolu- 
tions are also seen. 



FIG. 48. 

The External Surface of 
the Left Temporal Bone. 



S 10, 



11. Styloid Process. 

12. Vaginal Process. 

13. Glenoid Foramen. 

14. Part of the Groove 
Eustachian Tube. 



The Squamous Portion. 
The Mastoid Portion. 
Extremity of the Petrous Por- 
tion. 

Zygomatic Portion. 
Tubercle on which the Condyle 
of the Lower Jaw touches, 
when the mouth is widely 
opened. 

Posterior part ofthe Temporal 
Ridge. 

The Glenoid Fissure. 
The Mastoid Foramen. 
Meatus Auditorius Externus, 
surrounded by the Auditory 
Process. 

Fossa for the Digastric Muscle. 
Page 33. 



for the 



FIG. 49. 

I The Internal Surface of the 
Left Temporal Bone. 

1. Squamous Portion. 

2. Mastoid Portion and Foramen. 

3. Petrous Portion. 

4. Groove for the Posterior Branch 
of the Middle Artery of the Dura 
Mater. 

5. Bevelled Edge ofthe Squamous 
Portion. 

6. Zygomatic Process. 

7. Digastric Fossa. 

8. Occipital Groove. 
Groove for the Lateral Sinus. 
Position ofthe Superior Petrous 
Sinus. 

Opening of the Carotid Canal. 
Meatus Auditorius Internus. 
Supposed Aqueduct of the Ves- 
tibule. 

Styloid Process. 
Stylo- Mastoid Foramen. 
Carotid Foramen. 
Spine separating the Eighth Pair 
of Nerves from the Jugular Vein. 
The dark depression immediate- 
ly in advance of the number, is 
the Opening of the Aqueduct 
of the Cochlea. 

Points to the Vidian Foramen, 
on the Anterior Surface of the 
Petrous Portion. 
Origin of the Levator Palati and 
Tensor Tynipara Muscles. 



9 

10. 

\ 11. 

12. 
13. 

14. 

\ 15. 

16. 

17 



18 



19 



FIG. 50. 




FIG. 51. 



FIG. 52. 





FIG. 50. 

The Internal or Cerebral 
Surface of the Sphenoid 
Bone. 

1.1. The Lesser Wings or Apo- 
physes of Ingrassias. 

2.2. The Upper extremity of 
the Greater Wings. 

3. Ethmoidal Spine. 

4. Optic Foramina. 

5. Anterior Clinoid Processes. 

6. Posterior Clinoid Processes. 

7. Sphenoidal Fissure for the 
transmission of the 3d, 4th, 
First Branch of the 5th and 
the 6th Pairs of Nerves. 

8. Foramen Rotundum, trans- 
mitting the Second Branch 
of the 5th Pair. 

9. Foramen Ovale, for the 
Third Branch of the 5th 
Pair. 

10. Foramen Spinale, for the 
Middle Artery of the Dura 
Mater ; its course is shown 
by the dark line. 



THE CRANIUM. 

11. Styloid Process. 

12. External Pterygoid Pro- 
cess. 

13. Internal Pterygoid Process 
and Hook for the Circum- 
flexus Palati Muscle. 
Pterygoid Foramen for the 
Pterygoid Nerve. 
Articular Face for the Os 
Occipitis. 
Points to the Sella Turcica. 



11 



15 



16. 



FIG. 51. 

The Anterior and Inferior 
Surface of the Sphenoid 
Bone. 

1.1. Apophyses of Ingrassias. 

2.2. The Great Wings. 

3. Ethmoidal Spine. 

4. Azygos Process. 

5. Sphenoidal Cells, after the 
removal of the Pyramids 
of W T istar. 

6. Posterior Clinoid Pro- 
cesses. 

7. Sphenoidal Fissure. 

Tage 34. 



8. Foramen Rotundum. 

9. Depression for the Middle 
Lobes of the Cerebrum. 
Surface for the Temporal 
Muscle. 

Styloid Process. 
External Pterygoid Process. 

13. Internal Pterygoid Process. 

14. Pterygoid Foramen. 

15. Articular Face for the Os 
Frontis. 

16. Points to the Sella Turcica. 



10. 

11. 

12. 



FIG. 52. 

An Upper and Posterior 
View of the Ethmoid Bone. 

1. Nasal Lamella. 

2. Body or Cellular Portion. 

3. Crista Galli. 

4. Cribriform Plate. 

5. Superior Meatus. 

6. Superior Turbinated Bone. 

7. Middle Turbinated Bone. 

8. Os Planum. 

9. Surface for the Olfacto^ 
Nerve. 



FIG. 53. 




FIG. 54. 



FIG. 55. 





BONES-OF THE FACE. 



FIG. 53. 
A Front View of the Skull, 

SHOWING THE BoNES COM- 
POSING the Face. 

1. Os Frontis. 

2. Nasal Tuberosity. 

3. Supra-Orbital Ridge. 

4. Optic Foramen. 

5. Sphenoidal Fissure. 

6. Spheno-Maxillary Fissure. 

7. Lachrymal Fossa, and com- 
mencement of the Nasal 
Duct. 

8. Opening of the Anterior 
Nares, and the Vomer. 

9. Infra-Orbital Foramen. 

10. Malar Bone. 

11. Symphysis of the Lower 
Jaw. 

12. Anterior Mental Foramen. 

13. Ramus of the Lower Jaw- 
bone. 

14. Parietal Bone. 

15. Coronal Suture. 

16. Temporal Bone. 

17. Squamous Suture. 

18. Great Wing of the Sphenoid. 



19. Commencement of 
Temporal Ridge. 

20. Zygomatic Process. 

21. Mastoid Process. 



the 



FIG. 54. 

An External View of the 
Superior Maxilla of 
the Left Side. (W. M.) 

1. Orbitar Process. 

2. Infra-Orbitar Canal. 

3. Space for the Os Unguis. 

4. Upper part of the Lachry- 
mal Canal. 

5. Nasal Process, and Sur- 
face for Articulating with 
the Os Frontis. 

6. Surface for the Nasal Bone. 

7. Anterior portion of the 
Floor of the Nostril. 

8. Surface for Articulating 
with its Fellow. 

9. Alveolar Process. 

10. Points to the Depression 
just below the Infra-Orbi- 
tar Foramen. 

1 1 . Surface for the Malar Bone. 

Page 35. 



FIG. 55. 

An Internal View of the 
Superior Maxilla of the 
Left Side. ( W. Museum.) 

1. Antrum Highmorianum. 

2. Ductus ad Nasum. 

3. Articular Surface for the Os 
Frontis. 

4. Articular Surface for the Na- 
sal Bone. 

5. Surface for the Nasal Car- 
tilage. 

6. Anterior Point of the Floor 
of the Nostril. 

7. Surface for the Bone of the 
Right Side. 

8. Foramen Incisivum. 

9. Palate Plate. 

10. Surface for the Palate Bone. 

11. Anterior part of the Ridge for 
the Inferior Spongy Bone. 

12. Articular Surface for the 
Palate Bone behind. 

13. Surface for the Nasal Plate 
of the Palate Bone. 

14. Surface for the Orbitar Plate 
of the Palate Bone. 

15. Termination of the Nasal 
Duct. 



FIG. 56. 



FIG. 57. 






FIG. 59. 





ONES OF THE FACE. 



FIG. 56. 

A Posterior and Half Late- 
ral View of the Palate 
Bone. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. Palate Plate on its Nasal Sur- 
face. 

2. Nasal Plate. 

3. Pterygoid Process. 

4. Surface for Articulating with its 
Fellow. 

5. Half of the Cresoentic Edge and 
Spine for the Azygos Uvulae 
Muscle. 

6. Ridge for the Inferior Spongy 
Bone. 

7. Spheno-Palatine Foramen. 

8. Orbital Plate. 

9. Pterygoid Apophysis. 

10. Depression for the External 
Pterygoid Process of the Sphe- 
noid Bone, 

1 1 . Same for the Internal Pterygoid 
Process. 



FIG. 57, 

An Anterior and Posterior 
View of the Nasal Bones. 
Might Hand Figure. 

1. Anterior Inferior Extremity. 

2. Articulating Surface for its Fel- 
low. 



3, 
4. 

5. 
'> 6. 



Surface for the Nasal Process 
of the Superior Maxillary Bone. 
Points to the Groove on the In- 
ner Side, for the Nasal Nerve. 
Articular Face for the Os 
Frontis. 

Foramen for the Nutritious Ar- 
tery. 

Left Hand Figure. 
Posterior Inferior Extremity. 
Surface for its Fellow. 
Surface for the Superior Maxilla. 
Groove for the Internal Nasal 
Nerve. 

Surface for the Os Frontis. 
Lower portion of the Groove 
for the Nasal Nerve. 



FIG. 58. 
An Anterior View of the 
Os Unguis of the Left 
Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. Its Anterior Inferior Angle. 

2. Orbitar Plate and Side for the 
Os Planum. 

3. Fossa for the Lachrymal Sac. 

4. Superior Extremity. 

Page 36. 



FIG. 59. 
An External View of the 
Inferior Spongy Bone of 
the Right Side. (W. M.) 

1. Anterior Extremity .for resting on 
the Ridge of the Upper Maxilla. 

2. Posterior, for resting on the 
Ridge of the Palate Bone. 

3. Hooked portion, for resting on 
the Lower Margin of the An- 
trum Highmorianum. 

4. Its Inferior Border. 



FIG. GO. 

An anterior View of the 
Malar Bone of the Right 
Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. Anterior Orbital Angle. 

2. Orbital Face. 

3. Superior Angle for Articulating 
with the Os Frontis, 

4. External Angle for the Zygoma 
of the Temporal Bone. 

5. 6. Inferior Angle and Surface for 
the Superior Maxilla. 

7. Nutritious Foramen. 



FIG. 61. 



FIG. 62. 





FIG. 63. 





THE FACE AND THE SUTURES, 



FIG. 61. 

The Vomer. (W. M.) 
1. 2. Posterior and Superior Surface hollowed 
to receive the Azygos Process of the 
Sphenoid Bone. 
3. Anterior Surface for the Cartilaginous 
Septum of the Nose. 



10. 
11. 



FIG. 62. 

The Inferior Maxillary Bone. 

The Body. 

The Ramus. 

The Symphysis. 

Alveolar Process. 

Anterior Mental Foramen. 

The Base. 

Groove for the Facial Artery. 

The Angle. 

Extremity of the Ridge for the My lo-Hyoid 

Muscle. 

Coronoid Process. 

Condyle. 



12. Neck of the Condyloid Process. 

13. Posterior Mental Foramen. 

14. Groove for the Inferior Maxillary Nerve. 

15. Molar Teeth. 

16. Bicuspate Teeth. 

17. 18. Middle and Lateral Incisors. 



FIG. 63. 

A View of the Outside of the Vault of the 
Cranium, showing the Sutures. 

1. The Coronal Suture. 

2. The Sagittal Suture. 

3. The Lambdoidal Suture. 



FIG. 64. 

A Posterior and Inferior View of the Cra- 
nium, SHOWING THE PoSTEP.IOR SlTTURES. 

1. The Palate Suture. 

2. Posterior end of the Sagittal. 
8. The Lambdoidal. 

4. An Additamentum Suturse and Os Wor- 
mian urn above the Temporal Bone. 

37. 







FIG. 66. 



FIG. 67. 





THE 

FIG. 65. | 

A View of the Skull de- 
prived of its Outer Table, 
so as to show the dlploic 
Structure. The Arbores- ] 
cent dark Lines indicate \ 
the Channels for the 
Veins of this Structure. 



SUKFACE OF THE HEA 

4. 



FIG. 66. 

A View of the Internal 

Surface of the Base of 

the Cranium, after the 

Vault has been removed. 

1. Anterior Fossa for the An- 
terior Lobes of the Cerebrum. 

2. Lesser Wing of the Sphe- 
noid Bone. 

3. Crista Galli. 

4. Foramen Ccecum. 

5. Cribriform Plate. 

6. Processus Olivaris. 

7. Foramen Opticum. 

8. Anterior Clinoid Process. 

9. Groove for the Carotid Ar- 
tery- 

10. Greater Wing of the Sphe- 
noid Bone. 



11. Middle Fossa for the Mid- 
dle Lobes of the Cerebrum. 

12. Petrous Portion of the Tem- 
poral Bone. 

13. Sella Turcica. 

14. Basilar Gutter for the Me- 
dulla Oblongata. 

15. Foramen Rotundum. 

16. Foramen Ovale. 

17. Foramen Spinale. 

The Hiatus Fallopii is just 
below this number. 

18. Posterior Fossa for the Cer- 
ebellum. 

19. Groove for the Lateral Sinus. 

20. Ridge for the FalxCerebelli. 

21. Foramen Magnum. 

22. Meatus Auditoriuslnternus. 

23. Posterior Foramen Lacerum 
for the Jugular Vein. 

FIG. 67. 

An External View of the 

Base of the Cranium. 

1. The Hard Palate. 

2. Foramen Incisivum. 

3. Palate Plate of the Palate 
Bone. 

Page 38 



D. 

Crescentic Edge for the Azy- 
gos Uvulae Muscle. 

5. The Vomer, separating the 
Posterior Nares. 

6. Internal Pterygoid Process 
of the Sphenoid Bone. 

7. Pterygoid Fossa. 

8. External Pterygoid Process. 

9. Temporal Fossa below the 
Zygomatic Arch. 

10. Basilar Process. 

11. Foramen Magnum. 

12. Foramen Ovale. 

13. Foramen Spinale. 

14. Glenoid Fossa. 

15. Meatus AuditoriusExternus. 

16. Foramen Lacerum Anterius. 

17. Carotid Foramen. 

18. Foramen Lacerum Posterius. 

19. Styloid Process. 

20. Stylo-Mastoid Foramen. 

21. Mastoid Process. 

22. The Condyles of the Occi- 
pital Bone. 

23. Posterior Condyloid Fora- 
men. 



FIG. 68. 





FIG. 70. 




THE HEAD, 



FIG. 68. 

A Lateral View of the Skull, showing 
the Lines and Direction of the Facial 

Angle. 



FIG. 69. 
A View of the Fcstal Kead, showing the 

Fontanels. 
1. Posterior Fontanel. 

■I. Line of Separation of the Parietal Bones. 
3. interior Fontanel. 



4. Line of Separation of the Os Frontis. 
5.5. Coronal Suture in the Infant. 



FIG. 70. 
An Anterior View of the Os Hyoides. 

1. The Anterior Convex Side of the Body. 

2. The Cornu Majus of the Left Side. 

3. The Cornu Minus of the same Side. 
The Cornua were Ossified to the Body of 

the Bone, in this Specimen. 



Pa^e 39. 



FIG. 71. 



FIG. 72. 





FIG. 73. 




THE SHOULDER, 



FIG. 71. 



A Posterior View of the Scapula of the 
Left Side. 

1. Fossa Supra-Spinata. 

2. Fossa Infra-Spinata. 

3. Superior Margin. 

4. Coracoid Notch. 

5. Inferior Margin. 

6. Glenoid Cavity. 

7. Inferior Angle. 

8. The Neck and Point of Origin of the Long 
Head of the Triceps Muscle. 

9. Posterior, or Vertebral Margin. 

10. The Spine. 

11. Smooth Facet for the Trapezius Muscle. 

12. Acromion Process. 

13. Nutritious Foramen. 

14. Coracoid Process. 

15. Part of the Origin of the Deltoid Muscle 



FIG. 72. 

The External or Axillary Margin of the 
Scapula of the Right Side. (W. M.) 

1 . Articular Face for the Clavicle. 

2. Acromion Process. 



3. Coracoid Process. 

4. Origin of the Long Head of the Biceps Mus- 
cle. 

5. Glenoid Cavity. 

6. Origin of the Long Head of the Triceps 
Muscle. 

7. Anterior Costa. 

8. Surface for the Teres Major. 

9. Surface for a slip of the Latissimus Dorsi. 
10. Depression for the Teres Minor Muscle. 



FIG. 73. 

) An Anterior View of the Clavicle of the 
Right Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. The Anterior Face of the Body of the Bone. 

2. Origin of the Clavicular Portion of the Sterno- 
Cleido-Mastoid Muscle. 

3. The Sternal extremity of the Bone. 

4. The Acromial extremity of the Bone. 

5. Articular Face for the Acromion Process of the 
Scapula. 

6. Point of Attachment of the Conoid Liga- 
ment. 

7. Point of Attachment of the Rhomboid Liga- 
ment. 



Page -10. 



FIG. 74. 



FIG. 75. 



FIG. 76. 



lO-i 



ft to 



THE ARM AND FORE- ARM. 



FIG. 74. 

An Anterior View of the Hu- 
merus of the Right Side. 

1. The Shaft, or Diaphysis of 
the Bone. 

2. The Head. 

3. Anatomical Neck. 

4. Greater Tuberosity. 

5. Lesser Tuberosity. 

6. The Bicipital Groove. 

7. External Bicipital Ridge for 
the insertion of the Pecto- 
ralis Major. 

8. Internal Bicipital Ridge. 

9. Point of insertion of the 
Deltoid Muscle. 

10. Nutritious Foramen. 

11. Articular Face for the Head 
of the Radius. 

12. Articular Face for the Ulna. 



13. External Condyle. 

14. Internal Condyle. 

15. 16. The Condyloid Ridges. 
17. Lesser Sigmoid Cavity. 



FIG. 75. 

An Anterior View of the 
Ulna of the Left Side. 

1. Olecranon Process. 

2. Greater Sigmoid Cavity. 

3. Coronoid Process. 

4. Lesser Sigmoid Cavity. 

5. External Surface; just above 
the Number reposes the An- 
coneus Muscle. 

6. Ridge for the Interosseous 
Ligament. 

7. The Small Head for the Ra- 
dius. 

8. The Carpal Surface. 

Page 41. 



9. The Styloid Process. 
10. Groove, for the Extensor 
Carpi Ulnaris Tendon. 



FIG. 76. 

An Anterior View of the Ra- 
dius of the Right Side. 

1. Cylindrical Head. 

2. Surface for the Lesser Sig- 
moid Cavity of the Ulna. 

3. The Neck of the Radius. 

4. Its Tubercle, for the insertion 
of the Biceps Muscle. 

5. Interosseous Ridge. 

6. Concavity for the Lower End 
of the Ulna. 

7. Carpal Surface. 

8. Styloid Process. 

9. Surface for the Pronator Quad- 
ratus Muscle. 




FIG. 78. 




FIG. 79. 




7 6 



BONES OF THE HAND 



FIG. 77. 

The Two Rows of Bones of the Carpus. 

The Upper or First Row, viewed on its Inferior 

Articulating Surface. 

1. The Scaphoides. 

2. Its Articular Face. 

3. The Lunare. 

4. Its Articular Face. 

5. The Cuneiforme. 

6. Its Articular Face. 

7. The Pisiforme. 

The Lower or Second Row, viewed on its Superior 
Articulating Surface. 

1. The Trapezium. 

2. Its Tubercle. 

3. Its Articular Face. 

4. The Articular Face of the Trapezoides. 

5. The Superior Surface of the Trapezoides. 

6. The Magnum. 

7. Its Head, or Articulating Surface. 

8. The Unciforme. 

9. Its Hook-like Process. 

FIG. 78. 
An Anterior View of the Left Hand. 

1. The Scaphoides. 

2. The Lunare. 

3. The Cuneiforme. 

4. The Pisiforme. 

5. The Trapezium. 



6. Groove for the Flexor Carpi Radialis Tendon. 

7. The Trapezoides. 

8. The Magnum. 

9. The Unciforme. 

10.10. The Five Meta-Carpal Bones. 

11.11. First Row of Phalanges. 

12.12. Second Row of Phalanges. 

13.13. Third Row of Phalanges. 

14. First Phalanx of the Thumb. 

15. Last Phalanx of the Thumb. 



i age 



FIG. 79. 
A Posterior View of the Articulations of 
the Bones of the Carpus in the Right 
Hand 

1. The Ulna. 

2. The Radius. 

3. Inter- Articular Fibro-Cartilage. 

4. Metacarpal Bone of the Thumb. 

5. Metacarpal Bone of the First Finger. 

6. Metacarpal Bone of the Second Finger. 

7. Metacarpal Bone of the Third Finger. 

8. Metacarpal Bone of the Fourth Finger. 
S. The Scaphoides. 

L. The Lunare. 

C. The Cuneiforme. 

P. The Pisiforme. 

T. T. Trapezium and Trapezoides. 

M. The Magnum. 

U. The Unciforme, 

42. 



FIG. 82. 



EONES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITY. 



FIG. 80. 

An Anterior View of the Femur of the \ 
Right Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. Depression for the Round Ligament. 

2. The Head. 

3. The Neck. 

4. Trochanter Major. 

5. Trochanter Minor. 

6. Surface for the Capsular Ligament. 

7. Shaft of the Bone. 

8. The External Condyle. 

9. The Internal Condyle. 
10. Surface for the Patella. 



7.7. The Linea Aspera. 

8. Surface for the Gastrocnemius Muscle. 

9. The External Condyle. 

10. Depression for the Anterior Crucial Liga- 
ment. 

11. Depression for the Posterior Crucial Liga- 
ment. 

12. Point of Origin of the Internal Lateral Liga- 
ment. 



FIG. 81. 

A Posterior View of the Femur of the 
Right Side. (Wistar Museum.) 



1. Depression for the Round Ligament. 

2. The Head. 

3. Depression for some of the Rotatory Muscles. I 

4. Trochanter Major. 

5. Trochanter Minor. 

6. Roughness for the Gluteus Maximus Tendon. 

Page 



An 

1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

6.6. 

7. 



9. 
10. 

43. 



FIG. 82. 

Anterior View of the Tibia of the Right 
Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

Spinous Process, and Pits for the Attach- 
ment of the Crucial Ligaments. 
Surface for the Condyles of the Femur. 
Articular Face for the Head of the Fibula. 
The Head. 
The Tubercle. 

The Spine and Shaft of the Bone. 
Internal Malleolus. 

Process for the Internal Lateral Ligament 
of the Ankle. 
Tarsal Surface. 
Face for the Lower End of the Fibula. 



FTG. 83. 



FIG. 84. 




FIG. 85. 




FIG. 86. 




8V^9 



FIG. 87. 




BONES OF THE INFERIOR EXTREMITY, 



FIG. 83. 

An Anterior View of the Fibula of the 
Plight Side. 

1. Its Head. 

2. Articular Face for the Tibia. 

3. Point of Insertion of the External Lateral 
Ligament and Biceps Cruris Tendon. 

4. Shaft of the Bone. 

5.5. External Face, for the Peroneus Longus and 
Secundus Muscles. 

6. Interosseous Ridge. 

7. Face for the Lower End of the Tibia. 

8. Malleolus Externus. 

9. Tarsal Surface. 



FIG. 85. 
A Posterior View of the Patella. 
1.2. Its Superior Extremity. 

3. Its Inferior Extremity. 

4. Elevation for fitting the Trochlea of the Femur. 
5.6. Internal and External Sides. 



FIG. 86. 

A Lateral View of The Os Calcis of the 
Left Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. Surface for the Tend o-A chillis. 

2. Point, or Inferior Posterior Extremity. 

3. The Lesser Apophysis. 

4. Articular Face for Part of the Astragalus. 

5. The Anterior Extremity, or Greater Apophysis. 

6. Groove for the Flexor Longus Pollicis Pedis 
Tendon. 



FIG. 84. 
An Anterior View of the Patella. 

9 * > Surface for the Quadriceps Femoris Tendon. 

3. Lower Extremity and Point of Origin of the 
Ligramentum Patellae. 



FIG. 87. 
A Lateral View of the Astragalus of the 
Right Side. (Wistar Museum.) 

1. The Semi-Cylindrical Face for Articulating 
with the Tibia. 

2. The Articular Face for the External Malleolus. 

3. Surface for the Os Calcis. 

4. Posterior Extremity. 



Page 44. 



FIG. 88. 



FIG. 89. 





FIG. 90. 



FIG. 91. 





FIG. 92. 




BONES OF THE FOOT. 



FIG. 88. 

A Lateral View or the Na- 
viculars. (Wistar Museum.)\ 

1. Surface for the Astragalus. 

2. Superior Face. 

3. Surface for the Cuneiform 
Bones. 



5. 



FIG. 89. 
Half Lateral View of the 
Cuboid Bone. (TV. M.~) 
Its Superior, or Dorsal Face. 
Surface for Metatarsal Bones. 
Posterior Face for the Os Cal- 
cis. 

Inferior Face and Groove for 
the Peroneus Longus Tendon. 
Surface for the Cuneiforme 
Internum. 



FIG. 90. 

An Anterior View of the 
Three Cuneiform Bones, 
and also of the cuboid of 
the Right Side. (W. M.) 

1. The Cuboid. 

2. The Cuneiforme Externum. 



3. The Cuneiforme Medium. 

4. The Cuneiforme Internum. 



FIG. 92. 



FIG. 91. 

A View of the Upper Sur- { 
face of the Left Foot. 

1. The Astragalus on its Up- 
per Face. 

2. Its Anterior Face, Articu- 
lating with the Naviaulare. 

3. The Os Calcis. 

4. Naviculare, or Scaphoides. 

5. The Internal Cuneiform. 

6. The Middle Cuneiform. 

7. The External Cuneiform. 

8. The Cuboid Bone. 
9.9. Metatarsal Bones. 

10. First Phalanx of the Big 
Toe. 

11. Second Phalanx of the Big 
Toe. 

12.12. }The First, Second and 

13.13. C Third Phalanges of the 

14.14. J other Toes. 

Page 45. 



The Under Side, or Sole, of 
the Left Foot. 

1. The Lesser Apophysis of the 
Os Calcis. 

2. The Outer side of the Calcis. 

3. Groove for the Flexor Lon- 
gus Pollicis Pedis Tendon. 

4. Anterior Face of the Astra- 
galus. 

5. The Naviculare. 

6. Its Tuberosity on the Inner 
side. 

7. Internal Cuneiform Bone. 

8. Middle Cuneiform Bone. 

9. External Cuneiform Bone. 

10. The Cuboid Bone. 

11. Groove for the Peroneus Lon- 
gus Tendon. 

12.12. The Metatarsal Bones. 

13.13. The First Phalanges of 
the Toes. 

14.14. The Second Phalanges 
of the Toes. 

15.15. The Third Phalanges of 
the Toes. 

16. The Last Phalanx of the 
Great Toe. 



FIG. 94. 



FIG. 93. 





FIG. 95. 



FIG. 96. 




- ^fe^ 



W&l&»*j$( 



THE CARTILAGINOUS SYSTEM, 



FIG. 93. 
The Nucleated Cells of Cartilage, from 
the Lamprey; magnified. 

1 . The Nucleus, with its Nucleolus. 

2. Another, seen in Profile. 



FIG. 94. 

Articular Cartilage from the Head of the 
Humerus, magnified 320 Diameters, Ver- 
tical Section. 

1. Section close to the Surface. 

2. The Surface of the Cartilage. 

3. A Section far in the Interior. 

Pa® 



FIG. 95. 
A Section of the Cartilage of the Ribs, 
magnified 320 Diameters, and showing the 
Cells, their Nuclei and Nucleoli. The 
Transparent Spaces, result from the re- 
moval of the Cells by the Knife, their 
Cavities remaining. 



FIG. 96. 
A thin Section of the Thyroid Cartilage, 
Magnified 320 Diameters. 

e 46. 



FIG. 97. 




FIG. 99. 





THE FIBP^O, OH LIG-AMENTO--CARTILAG-INOUS SYSTEM, 



FIG. 97. 

A Microscopical View of Fibro-Cartilage. 

1. Two Cartilage Cells, lying amongst the 
White Fibrous Tissue, in an Intervertebral 
Disc. 

2. Fibro-Cartilage, as Laminae, free on both Sur- 
faces, and as placed in the Cavity of Diarthro- 
dial Joints. They are the Menisci of Authors, 
and exist in the Temporo-Maxillary, Sterno- 
clavicular, and Tibio-Femoral Articulations. 

3. Fibro-Cartilage, as Triangular Edges to the 
Glenoid and Cotyloid Cavities, in the Shoul- 
der and Hip-Joints. 

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Exhibit various Forms of the 

Cells in the Central Pulpy Substance of the 
Intervertebral Matter. In several there is an 
appearance of Multiplication by Subdivision 
of the Nucleus, and some seem attached by a 
Fibrous Tissue. 



FIG. 98. 

A Microscopical View of the White Fibrous 
Tissue, magnified 320 Diameters 

1. 2. The Straight appearance of the Tissue 
when stretched, as in Ligaments of the 
Funicular and Fasicular kinds. 

3.4.5. Show the various Wavy appearances which 
the Tissue exhibits when not stretched. 



FIG. 99. 

The Yellow Fibrous Tissue, showing the 
Curly and Branched Disposition of its 
Fibrillje, their Definite Outline and Ab- 
rupt Mode of Fracture, magnified 320 
Diameters. 

1. The Structure undisturbed, and not moved 
from its natural position, as seen in the rest of 
the .Specimen. 

47. 



FIG. 100. 



FIG. 101. 





FIG. 102. 




ARTICULATION OF THE LOWER JAW 



FIG. 100. 

The Articulation of the Lower Jaw on its 
External Surface. 

1. Zygomatic Arch. 

2. The Tubercle in Front of the Glenoid Cavity, 
on which the Condyloid Process rests when 
the Mouth is widely opened. 

3. The Ramus of the Lower Maxilla. 

4. The Mastoid Process of the Temporal Bone. 

5. The External Lateral Ligament. 

6. The Stylo-Maxillary Ligament. 



The Internal Surface of the Capsular Liga- 
ment. 

The Internal Lateral Ligament. 
The Opening in it for the Mylo-Hyoid Nerve, 
a Branch of the Inferior Dental. 
The Stylo-Maxillary Ligament. 



1. 
FIG. 101. 

An Internal View of the Articulation of 
the Lower Jaw. I 3. 

1. A Section through a portion of the Temporal \ 4. 
and Sphenoid Bones. S 5. 

2. The Inside of the Ramus and part of the Body i 6. 
of the Lower Jaw. \ 

Fage 4S. 



FIG. 102. 

View of the Articulation of the Lower 
Jaw, given by sawing through the Joint. 

The Glenoid Fossa. 

The Tubercle for the Condyle in its Forward 

movements. 

The Inter-Articular Cartilage. 

The Superior Synovial Cavity. 

The Inferior Synovial Cavity. 

The Inter- Articular Cartilage removed from 

the Joint and seen from below. 



FIG. 104. 




FIG. 103 



FIG. 105. 





LIGAMENTS OF THE SPINE 



FIG. 103. 

An Anterior View op the Ligaments of the 
Vertebrje and Ribs. 

1. The Anterior Vertebral Ligament. 

2. The Anterior Costo-Vertebral Ligament. 

3. The Internal Transverse Ligament. 

4. The Inter- Articular Ligament, connecting 
the Head of the Rib to the Intervertebral 
Substance. 



2.2. Surfaces of the Vertebrae from which the 
Bony Bridges have been removed. 

3. The Posterior Vertebral Ligament. 

4. An Opening for one of the Vertebral 
Veins. 



FIG. 104. 
A Posterior View op the Spinal Canal, 
half of which has been cut away in order 
to show its Interior. 

1.1. The Intervertebral Substance. 

Page 49. 



FIG. 105. 

An Internal View of the Bony Bridges op 
the Vertebrae, after their separation 
from the Bodies of the Bones. 



1.1. One Pair of the Ligamenta Flava, or 
Yellow Ligaments. 
2. The Capsular Ligament of one side. 



FIG. lOfi. 



FIG. 107. 





FIG. 108. 



FIG. 109. 





LIGAMENTS OF THE SPINE 



FIG. 106. 

A Posterior View of the Thoracic portion 
of the Vertebrje. 

1. 1. The Ligaments of the Spinous Processes. 
2.2.2. The Yellow Ligaments. 

3. The Anterior, or Internal Costo-Transverse 
Ligament. 

4. The Posterior, or External Costo-Trans- 
verse Ligament. 



FIG. 107. 

An Anterior View of the Ligaments con- j 
necting the atlas and dentata with \ 
the Os Occipitis. The Basilar Process > 
of the Occipital Bone and the Petrous \ 
portion of the temporal being divided 
BY the Saw. 

1. The Anterior Occipito-Atloidien Ligament. \ 

2. The Membrana Annuli Anterioris of Caldani. \ 

3. The commencement of the Anterior Yerte- t 
bral Ligament. j 

4.5. The Capsular Ligament of the Oblique Pro- \ 
cesses of the Atlas and Dentata. 

6. The Joint between the First and Second Cor- 
vical Vertebrae, after the removal of the Cap- 
sular Ligament. 

7. The Outer Fibres of the Membrana Annuli 
Anterioris. 

i 



FIG. 108. 
A Posterior View of the Articulation of 
the Occiput, Atlas and Dentata. 

1. The Atlas. 

2. The Dentata. 

3. The Posterior Occipito-Atloidien Ligament. 

4. The Capsular Ligament of the Oblique Pro- 
cesses of the Atlas and the Condyles of the 
Occipital Bone. 

5. The Ligament between the First and Second 
Vertebrae. 

6. The Lateral Fasciculi of the same. 

7. The First of the Yellow Ligaments. 

8. The Capsular Ligament between the Oblique 
Processes of the Second and Third Vertebrae. 



FIG. 109. 

The Upper Part of the Spinal Canal opened 
from Behind, to show the LigameiNts on 
its Front. 

1. The Basilar Portion of the Sphenoid Bone. 

2. Section of the Occiput. 

3. The Front Half of the Atlas. 

4. The Front Half of the Dentata. 

5. The beginning of the Posterior Vertebral Liga- 
ment. 

6. 7. The Capsular Ligaments of the Occipito- 

Atloidien, and the First and Second Vertebra] 
Articulations, at their Oblique Processes. 

50. 



FIG. ill. 




FIG. 112. 





LIGAMENTS OF THE SPINE AND PELVIS. 



FIG. 110. 
A Posterior View of the Ligaments connect- 
ing the Atlas and the Dentata with the 
Occipital Bone. 

1. The Upper Part of the Posterior Vertebral 
Ligament. 

2. The Transverse Ligament. 

3.4. The Upper and Lower Appendices of the 

Transverse Ligament. 
5. One of the Moderator Ligaments. 
6.7. Capsular Ligaments belonging to the Oblique 

Processes of the First and Second Vertebrae. 



FIG. 111. 

An Anterior View of the Ligaments of the 
Pelvis. 

1. The Lower Part of the Anterior Vertebral Li- 
gament. 

2. The Sacro-Vertebral Ligament. 

3. The Ilio-Lumbar Ligament. 

4. The Anterior portion of the Sacro-Iliac Liga- 
ment. 

5. The Obturator Ligament. 

6. Poupart's Ligament. 

Paqe 



7. That portion of the same which is known as 
Gimbernat's Ligament. 

8. The Capsular Ligament of the Hip-Joint. 

9. The Accessory Ligament of the Hip-Joint. 



i FIG. 112. 
A Posterior View of the Ligaments of the 
Pelvis. 

1. Base of the Sacrum. 

2. The Coccyx. 

3.3. The Crista Ilii. 

4.4. The Tuber Iscbii. 

5.5. The Greater Sciatic Notch. 

6. The Lesser Sciatic Notch. 

7. The Femur. 

8. The Posterior portion of the Sacro-Iliac Li- 
gament. 

9. The Sacro-Spinous Ligament. 

10. The Posterior Sacro-Coccygeal Ligament in 
its whole length. 

11. The Obturator Ligament. 

12. The Obturator Foramen. 

13.13. The Origin of the Greater Sciatic Ligament. 

14. Its Insertion. 

15. The Origin of the Lesser Sciatic Ligament. 

16. Its Insertion. 

51. 



FIG. 113. 



FIG. 114. 





FIG. 115. 



FIG. 116. 





ARTICULATIONS OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 



FIG. 113. 

The Ligaments op the Sterno-Clavicular 
and costo-sternal articulation. 

1. The Capsular Ligament, of the Sterno-Clavi- 
cular Articulation. 

2. The Inter- Clavicular Ligament. 

3. The Costo-Clavicular, or Rhomboid Ligament. 

4. The Inter-Articular Cartilage. 

5. The Anterior Costo-Sternal Ligaments of the 
First and Second Ribs. 



FIG. 114. 

The Ligaments op the Acromio-Clavicular 
and scapulo-humeral articulations. 

1. The Superior Acromio-Clavicular Ligament. 

2. The Coraco-Clavicular Ligament. 

3. The Coraco- Acromial Ligament. 

4. The Coracoid Ligament. 

5. The Capsular Ligament of the Shoulder-Joint. \ 

6. The Ligamentum Adscititium, or Coraco-Hu- 
meral Ligament. 

7. The Tendon of the Long Head of the Biceps 
Muscle, issuing from the Capsular Ligament. \ 

Page 



FIG. 115. 

An External View of the Elbow-Joint. 

1. The Humerus. 

2. The Ulna. 

3. The Radius. 

4. The External Lateral Ligament. 

5. The Coronary Ligament. 

6. The Insertion of the Coronary Ligament at 
the Posterior Part of the Lesser Sigmoid Ca- 
vity of the Ulna. 

7. 8. The Portions of the Capsular Ligament 
known as the Accessory Ligaments. 

9. The Interosseous Ligament of the Fore-Arm. 



FIG. 116. 
An Internal View of the Eldow-Joint. 
1. The Capsular Ligament. 
2.2. The Internal Lateral Ligament. 

3. The Coronary Ligament. 

4. The Ligamentum Teres. 

5. The Interosseous Ligament. 

6. The Internal Condyle, which conceals the 
Capsular Ligament behind. 

52. 



FIG. 117. 



FIG. 118. 





ARTICULATIONS OF THE UPPER EXTREMITIES. 



FIG. 117. 
An Anterior View of the Ligaments of the 
Wrist, on the Left Side. 

1 . The Lower Part of the Interosseous Ligament. 

2. The Radio- Ulnar Ligament. 

3. The portion of the Capsular Ligament known 
as the Anterior Ligament. 

4. The External Lateral Ligament. 

5. The Internal Lateral Ligament. 

6. The Capsular Ligament of the Carpal Bones. 

7. The Pisiform Bone. 

8. The Ligaments connecting the Second Row 
of the Carpus with the Metacarpus. 

9. The Capsular Ligament of the Carpo-Meta- 
carpal Joint of the Thumb. 

10. The Capsular Ligament of the Metacarpo 
Phalangial Joint of the Thumb. 

11. The External Lateral Ligament of the same 
Joint. 

12. The Capsular Ligament of the Metacarpo 
Phalano-ial Articulation of the Index Finger. 

13.13. Lateral Ligaments of similar Articulations. 

14. The Inferior Palmar Ligaments. 

15. The Phalangial Joint of the Thumb, with its 
Capsular and Lateral Ligaments. 



16.16. The same of the Fore-Finger. The Cap- 
sular Ligaments have been removed in the 
other Finders. 



A 



FIG. 118. 

Diagram showing the Arrangement of 
the Five Synovial Membranes of the 
Wrist Joint. 

1. The Sacciform Membrane. 

2. The Joint between the First Row of Carpal 
Bones and those of the Fore-Arm. 

3.3. The Synovial Membrane between the Two 
Rows of Bones. 

4. The Joint between the Pisiform and Cunei- 
form Bones. 

5. The Synovial Membrane at the Meta-Carpal 
Joint of the Thumb. 

6. The Radius. 

7. The Ulna. 

8. The Interarticular Cartilage, or Triangular 
Ligament 

9. The Metacarpal Bone of the Thumb. 
10.10. Those of the Fingers. The Capital Let- 
ters indicate the separate bones of the Car- 
pus, thus, S. Scaphoides — L. Lunare,&c.,&c. 

53. 



FIG. 119. 






ARTICULATIONS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 



FIG. 119. 

A Lateral View of the Ligaments of the 
Hip-Joint and Pelvis. 

1. The Posterior Sacro-Iliac Ligament of the 
Pelvis. 

2. The Greater Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

3. The Lesser Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

4. The Greater Sacro-Sciatic Notch. 

5. The Lesser Sacro-Sciatic Notch. 

6. The Cotyloid Ligament around the Acetabulum. 

7. The Ligamentum Teres. 

8. The Line of Attachment of the Capsular Liga- 
ment of the Hip-Joint, posteriorly. The Li- 
gament has been removed, in order to show 
the Joint. 

9. The Obturator Ligament. 



4.4. The Synovial Membrane, after the removal 
of the Involucrum. 

5. The Internal Lateral Ligament. 

6. The External Ligament. 

7. The Anterior Ligament of the Superior Pe- 
roneo-Tibial Articulation. 



FIG. 120. 

An Anterior View of the Knee-Joint of the 
Right Side. 

1. The Tendon of the Quadriceps Femoris Muscle. 

2. The Patella. 

3. The Ligament of the Patella. 

Fage 



9. 



FIG. 121. 

Posterior View of the Knee-Joint of the 
Right Side. 

The Ligament of Winslow. 
The Tendon of the Semi-Membranosus Muscle. 
Its Insertion, showing the Expansion of its 
Fibres. 

The portion which passes beneath the Internal 
Lateral Ligament. 
The Internal Lateral Ligament. 
The External Lateral Ligament. 
A Fasciculus of the same, sometimes called 
the Short External Lateral Ligament. 
The Tendon of the Popliteus Muscle cut short. 
The Posterior Superior Peroneo-Tibial Liga- 
ment. 



54, 



FIG. 122. 



FIG. 123. 





FIG. 124. 



FIG. 125. 





ARTICULATIONS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 



FIG. 122. 
The Right Knee-Joint laid open. 

1. The Lower End of the Femur covered by its 
Articular Cartilage. 

2. The Anterior Crucial Ligament. 

3. The Posterior Crucial Ligament. 

4. The Transverse Fasciculus adhering to the 
Semilunar Cartilages. 

5. The Point of Attachment of the Ligamentum 
Mucosum, the rest of it has been removed. 

6. The Internal Semilunar Cartilage. 

7. The External Semilunar Cartilage. 

8. A part of the Ligamentum Patellae turned 
downwards. 

9. Its Bursa laid open. 

10. The Superior Peroneo-Tibial Articulation. 

11. The Interosseous Ligament. 



9. One of the Ligamenta Alaria, the other being 
removed with the opposite Section. 

10. The Ligamentum Mucosum. 

11. The Anterior Crucial Ligament. 

12. The Posterior Ligament. 



FIG. 124. 

An Internal View of the Ankle-Joint op 
the Right Side. 



FIG. 123. 

A Longitudinal Section of the Knee-Joint 
of the Left Side. 

1. The Cellular Structure of the Lower End of 
the Femur. 

2. The Tendon of the Quadriceps Femoris. 

3. The Patella. 

4. Its Ligament. 

5. The Cellular Structure of the Tibia. 

6. The Bursa Mucosa between the Ligament of 
the Patella and the Head of the Tibia. 

7. A mass of Fat projecting into the Joint below 
the Patella. 

8. The Synovial Membrane; the Stars show its 
Reflections in the Joint. 



1. 

2.2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 



Internal Malleolus. 

Part of the Astragalus, the rest being con- 
cealed by Ligaments. 
Os Calcis. 
Scaphoides. 

Internal Cuneiform Bone. 
Internal Lateral, or Deltoid Ligament. 
The Synovial Capsule, covered by a few 
Fibres of a Capsular Ligament. 
Tendo Achillis. A small Bursa is seen be- 
tween this Tendon and the Tuberosity of the 
Os Calcis. 



FIG. 125. 
An External View of the Right Ankle-Joint. 

1. The Tibia. 

2. The External Malleolus of the Fibula. 
3.3. The Astragalus. 

4. The Os Calcis. 

5. The Cuboides. 

6.7. 8. The Anterior, Middle, and Posterior Fas- 
ciculi of the External Lateral Ligament. 
9. The Imperfect Capsular Ligament. 



Page 55. 



FIG. 126. 




FIG. 128. 





13 H- II 



ARTICULATIONS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES. 



FIG. 126. 
A Posterior View of the Ankle-Joint of the 
Left Side. 

1. The Interosseous Ligament of the Bones of the Leg. 

2. The Posterior Inferior Ligament connecting the 
Tibia and Fibula. 

3. The Transverse, or Long Fibres of the same Liga- 
ment. 

4. The Internal Lateral Ligament. 

5. The Posterior Fasciculus of the External Lateral 
Ligament. 

6. The Middle Fasciculus of the same. 

7. The Synovial Capsule. 

8. The Os Calcis. 



12. The Transverse Ligament. 

13. Lateral Ligaments of the Last Joints of the Toes. 



FIG. 127. 
A View of the Ligaments of the Sole of 
the Foot. 

1. The Under Surface of the Os Calcis. 

2. The Astragalus. 

3. The Scaphoides. 

4.5. The two Planes of Fibres of the Calcaneo- Cu- 
boid Ligament. 

6. The Calcaneo-Scaphoid Ligament. 

7. The Plantar Ligaments. 

8.8. The Peroneus Longus Tendon. 

9.9. The Tarso- Metatarsal Plantar Ligaments. 

10. The Capsular Ligament of the First Joint of the 
Big Toe. 

11. The Lateral Ligaments of the First Joints of thej 
Toes. 

Page 



FIG. 128. 
A Vertical Section of the Ankle-Joint and 
Foot of the Right Side. 

1. The Tibia. 

2. The Astragalus. 

3. Os Calcis. 

4. The Scaphoides. 

5. The Cuneiforme Internum. 

6. The Metatarsal Bone of the Great Toe. 

7. The First Phalanx of the Great Toe. 

8. The Second Phalanx of the Great Toe. 

9. The Articular Cavity between the Tibia and As- 
tragalus, with its Articular Adipose Matter. 

10. The Synovial Capsule between the Astragalus and 

Calcis. 
11- The Calcaneo- Astragalian Interosseous Ligament. 

12. The Synovial Capsule between the Astragalus 
and Scaphoides. 

13. The Calcaneo-Scaphoid Ligament. 

14. The Calcaneo-Cuboid Ligament. 

15. The Synovial Capsule between the Scaphoides 
and Cuneiforme Internum. 

16. The Synovial Capsule between the Cuneiforme- 
Internum and the First Metatarsal Bone. 

17. The Metatarso-Phalangial Articulation of the 
Great Toe, with the Sesamoid Bones below. 

18. The Phalangial Articulation of the Great Toe. 
56. 



END OF PART FIRST. 



PART SECOND. 

DERMOID and MUSCULAR 
SYSTEM: 

NINETY-ONE FIGURES. 



FIG. 129 




THE MUSCLES. 



FIG. 129. 

Anterior View of the 
Muscles of the 
Body. 

1. Frontal Bellies of the Oc- 
cipito-Frontalis. 

2. OrbicularisPalpebrarum. 

3. Levator Labii Superioris 
Alseque Nasi. 

4. Zygomaticus Minor. 

5. Zygomaticus Major. 

6. Masseter. 



7. Orbicularis Oris. 

8. Depressor Labii Infe- 
rioris. 

9. Platysma-Myodes. 

10. Deltoid. 

11. Pectoralis Major. 

12. Axillary portion of the 
Latissimus Dorsi. 

13. Serratus Major Ami- 
cus. 

14. Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 

15. Anterior portion of the 
Triceps Extensor Cu- 
biti. 



16. Supinator Radii Lon- 
gus. 

17. Pronator Radii Teres. 

18. Extensor Carpi Radi- 
alis Longior. 

19. Extensor Ossis Meta- 
carpi Pollicis. 

20. Annular Ligament. 

21. Palmar Fascia. 

22. Obliquus Externus 
Abdominis. 

23. Linea Alba. 

24. Tensor Vaginae Femo- 
lis. 



25. Section of the Sperma- 
tic Cord. 

26. Psoas Magnus. 

27. Adductor Longus. 

28. Sartorius. 

29. Rectus Femoris. 

30. Vastus Externus. 

31. Vastus Internus. 

32. Tendon Patella?. 

33. Gastrocnemius. 

34. Tibialis Amicus. 

35. Tibia. 

36. Tendons of the Exten- 
sor Communis. 



Fage 59. 



FIG. 130. 




THE MUSCLES. 



FIG. 130. 

Posterior View op the 
Muscles of the Body. 

1. Temporalis. 

2. Occipital portion of the 
Occipito-Frontalis. 

3. Complexus. 

4. Splenitis. 

5. Masseter. 

6. Sterno- Cleido-Mastoi- 
deus. 



7. Trapezius. 

8. Deltoid. 

9. Infra- Spinatus. 

10. Triceps Extensor. 

11. Teres Minor. 

12. Teres Major. 

13. Tendinous portion of 
the Triceps. 

14. Anterior Edge of the 
Triceps. 

15. Supinator Radii Lon- 



16. Pronator Radii Teres. 

17. Extensor Communis 
Digitorum. 

18. Extensor Ossis Meta- 
carpi Pollicis. 

19. Extensor Communis 
Digitorum Tendons. 

20. Olecranon and Inser- 
tion of the Triceps. 

21. Extensor Carpi Ulna- 
ris. 

22. Auricularis. 



23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 



Extensor Communis. 
Latissimus Dorsi. 
Its Tendinous Origin. 
Posterior part of the 
Obliquus Externus. 
Gluteus Medius. 
Gluteus Magnus. 
Biceps Flexor Cruris. 
Semi-Tendinosus. 

I Gastrocnemius. 

Tci.do Achillis. 



Page 60. 



FIG. 133. 



FIG. 131. 




mwfm 



PKpmra 

lisp 



r#Pt 




FIG. 132. 



FIG. 134. 





THE CELLULAR AND ADIPOSE TISSUES. 

FIG. 131. | FIG. 133. 

A View op a Portion or Areolar or Cellu- j The Blood-vessels of Fat, magnified 100 

Diameters. 



lar Tissue, Inflated and Dried, showing 
the general Character of its larger 
Meshes; magnified twenty Diameters. 



1. Minute flattened Fat Lobules, in which the 
Vessels only are represented. 

2. Plan of the arrangement of the Capillaries of the 
exterior of the Vesicles, more highly magnified. 

3. The Terminal Artery. 

4. The Primitive Vein. 

\ 5. The Fat Vesicles of one border of the Lobule 

F I C 132 \ 

I separately represented. 

Fat Vesicles from the Omentum, magnified > 

FIG. 134. 

ABOUT 300 diameters, and assuming the > _, _, ~ 

> Fat Vesicles from an emaciated Subject. 



Polyphedral form, from pressure against 
one another. The Capillary vessels are 
not represented. 



1.1. The Cell Membrane. 
2.2.2. The solid portion collected as a star-like 
mass, with the Elaine in connexion with 
it, but not filling the Cell. 
Fane 6L 



FIG. 135. 



FIG. 137. 




FIG. 136. 





«l&Bii*> 



THE INTEGUMENTS OF THE BODY. 



FIG. 135. 

The External Surface op the Epidermis, as 
seen upon the front extremity of the 
fore-flnger, and upon the ulnar side of 
the back of the arm, slightly magnified. 

1.1. The circular Wrinkles on the front of the Fore- 
Finger. 

2.2. The curvature of the Wrinkles and Lines on the 
outer surface of the circular ones. 

3. The Transverse Wrinkles. 

4.4. Wrinkles made by the Sudoriferous Canals. 

5.5. The oblique Wrinkles on the Ulnar side of the 
Back of the Arm. 

6.6. The peculiar Diamond-shaped Wrinkles on the 
Back of the Hand, with a few of the Hairs found 
at their angles. 



FIG. 137. 
The Epidermis, Rete Mucosum and Cutis 
Vera on the Sole of the Foot. 

The Epidermis and Rele Mucosum have been deiached and drawn 
back, so as to show ihe Sudoriferous Canals passing from the 
Cutis Vera into the Rrte Mucosum and Epidermis, 

1. The Internal Surface of the Epidermis with its 
Lines and I ransverse Furrows. 

2. The Rete Mucosum in connexion with the Inter- 
nal Face of the Epidermis. 

3. The External Surface of the Cutis Vera separated 
from the Rete Mucosum and Epidermis. 

4,4. Sudoriferous or Spiral Canals, so stretched by the 
withdrawal of the Epidermis that they appear 
like very thin and straight Filaments. 



FIG. 136. 

The Cellular Tissue on the Internal Sur- 
face of the Skin, with its Adipose Layer 
and the Fascia Superficialis. From the j 
Integuments of the Arm ; magnified. 

1.1. The large and smaller Cells of the Skin deprived \ 
of the Fat which filled them. 

2. The Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Matter. 

3. The Fascia Superficialis. { 

Page 



FIG. 138. 
The Epidermis and Rete Mucosum of the 
Heel separated from each other and seen 
on their Internal Surfaces, magnified six 
times. 

1.1. The Internal Face of the Epidermis. 

2.2. The Rete Mucosum. 

3.3. On the sides of these Figures are the elevated 
Lines as adapted to the Furrows of the Derm. 

4.4. The deep-seated Furrows corresponding to those 
on the External Face of the Epidermis. 

5.5. The smaller Eminences which sink into the Fur- 
rows between the different series of Papillae ; seen 
in the Furrows. 

6.6. The Cells of the Rete Mucosum in which the 
Papillae of the Derm rest. 

These Cells are of the same order as the Cells of the 
Papillae of the Derm, seen in Fig. 139, to which 
they correspond. 

62. 



FIG. 139. 



FIG. 140. 




FIG. 141. 



FIG. 142. 





THE INTEGUMENTS OF THE EODY. 



FIG. 139. 

The External Surface of the Epidermis 
and Cutis Vera, on the Sole of the Foot, 
magnified six dlameters. 
(1.) Represents a portion of the Cutis Vera with 
the Epidermis. 
i. The Wrinkles, or Furrows. 

2. The prominent Lines. 

3, The Funnel-shaped Orifices of the Sudoriferous 
Canals or the Pores of the Skin. 

(2.) Represents a portion of the Cutis Vera de- 
prived of the Epidermis and Rete Mucosum. 

4.4. The deep Furrows which correspond to the ele- 
vated Lines on the Internal Surface of the Epider- 
mis as seen in Fig. 138, at 3. 

5.5. The smaller Furrows between the Papillae, in 
which the small Prominences of the Rete Muco- 
sum are inserted. 

6.6. Orifices of the Sudoriferous Canals of the Cutis 
Vera seen between the Papillae and corresponding 
to the Funnel-shaped Orifices of the surface of 
the Skin. 

7.7. Ranges of the Papillse which are inserted into the 
Rete Mucosum. 



FIG. 141. 

The Internal Reticulated and Cellular 
Face of the Cutis Vera, magnified con- 
siderably. 

1. The greater and smaller Bands of Fibres. 

2. The junction and intercrossing of these Fibres. 

3. The greater and smaller Cells from which the Cel- 
lular Substance which fills them has been removed. 



FIG. 140. 
The Loops of Vessels in the Cutaneous Pa- j 

PILLiE OF THE HAND. The ARTERIAL INJEC- 
tion has succeeded admirably, and the j 
whole is represented as seen under the 
Microscope. 
1.1. The Salient Lines of the Cutis Vera formed by j 
the Papillae (2.2.) 
3. The Furrows. \ 

Page 



FIG. 142. 

A Perpendicular Section of the Integuments 
of the Sole of the Foot, as seen under 
the Microscope. 

1.1. The Salient Lines of the External Surface of the 
Skin cut perpendicularly. 

2.2. The Furrows or Wrinkles of the same. 

3. The Epidermis or Cuticle, as formed by its Su- 
perimposed Layers. 

4.4. The Rete Mucosum. 

5.5. The Cutis Vera, with its Cellular Fibres pressed 
into Fasciculi and each directed towards the Pa 
pillae.. 

6.6. The Papillae, each of which answers to the Pro 
minences on the External Surface of the Skin. 

7. The small Furrows between the Papillae. 

8. The deeper Furrows which are between each 
couple of the Papillae. 

9. Cells filled with Fat, and seen between the Bands 
of Fibres. 

10. The Adipose Layer with numerous Fat Vesicles. 

11. Cellular Fibres of the Adipose Tissue, continuous 
with the Sub-Cutaneous Cellular Tissue, and 
with that of the Cutis Vera. 

63 



FIG. 143. 





FIG. 145 





THE SEBACEOUS AND PERSPIRATORY ORGANS OF THE SKIN 



FIG. 143. 

A HIGHLY MAGNIFIED DRAWING OF THE CUTA- 
NEOUS Glands of the External Meatus 
Auditorius. 

(Fig. 1.) A Section of the Skin magnified three 
Diameters. 

1.1. The deep-seated Glands which secrete the Ceru- 
men or Ear- Wax. 

2.2. The Hairs on the Surface. 

3.3. The superficial Sebaceous Glands. 

(Fig. 2.) A Hair perforating the Epidermis, 
highly magnified. 

1.1. Sebaceous Glands. 

2.2. Their Excretory Ducts. 

3. The Epidermis. 

4. The Base of the Hair. 
5.5. Its Double Follicle. 



(Fig. 3.) A view of the Cerumen Gland as formed 

by the Contorted Tubes. 
1.1. The Tubes. 

2. The Excretory Duct. I 

3. The Vessels supplying it. ' 

Fage 



FIG. 144. 

A magnified View of the Sudoriferous Or- 
gans of the Skin on the Sole of the Foot. 
This Figure from 1 to 11, inclusive, is the same as in 
Figure 142. 

12. The Sudoriferous Follicles. 

13. The Spiral or Sudoriferous Canals. 

14. The Infudibular-shaped Pores or Orifices of these 
Canals. 

FIG. 145. 
The Perspiratory Organs — Granular Seba- 
ceous Glands and Follicles of Hairs in the 
Skin of the Axilla ; highly magnified. 

1. Epidermis. 

2. Cutis Vera. 

3. Adipose Tissue. 

4.4. Two Perspiratory Follicles. 

5.5. Their Spiral Canals. 

6.6. Follicles of Hairs. 

7.7. Sebaceous Glands, two of which almost always 
belong to each Follicle. 

8.8. The Acini of these Glands. 

9.9. Their Excretory Ducts, continuous with the 
Cavity of the Follicle of the Hair. 

10.10. The Orifices of the Follicles of the Hairs. 
; 11.11. Their Roots. 
I 12.12. The Hairs as seen under the Microscope. 

64. 



FIG. 147. 




FIG. 146. tf 




FIG. 148. 



FIG. 150. 




PERSPIRATORY GLANDS AND HAIRS OF THE SKIN. 



FIG. 146. 

A Sudoriferous Gland from 
the Palm of the Hand; 
magnified 40 dlameters. 

1.1. The twisted Tubes compos- 
ing the Gland. 

2.2. The Excretory Ducts formed 
by the union of these Tubes. 

3. The Spiral Canal formed by 
the Excretory Ducts perfo- 
rating- the Epidermis. 

4. Its Opening on the surface. 
5.5. The Fat Vesicles in which 

the Gland is imbedded. 



FIG. 147. 
A Hair from an Adult as 

SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE. 

1.1. The Follicle of the Hair. 

2. Its Orifice. 

3. The Base of the Follicle. 

4. Pulp of the Hair. 

5. Its Root. 

6. The Bulb in which the Pulp 
is inserted. 

7. Trunk of the Hair. 

8. The portion which projects 
beyond the Skin. 



FIG. 148. 

A magnified View of a small 
Hair from the Face of a 
Man — removed with its 
Follicle and seen under 
the Microscope. 

1.1. Its Follicle. 

2. Root of the Hair. 

3. Its Trunk. 

4. Its Extremity. 

5. Its Cortical or External 
Substance. 

6. Its Internal or Medullary 
Substance. 



6. Its excavated Base, in which 
the Pulp, 7, is inserted. 

8. A small Artery. 

9. Its distribution to the Pulp. 

10. The Membrane of the Fol- 
licle of the Hair. 

11. Its Base placed in the Pulp 
of the Hair. 

12. The Cuticle or Epidermis of 
the Follicle, which joins 
with the Bulb of the Hair. 



FIG. 149. 
TheRootof oneoftheHairs 
of the Beard with its Pulp 
and Follicle, considera- 
bly magnified. 

1. A small portion of its Trunk. 

2. The Cortical Substance. 

3. The Medullary. 

4. The Root of the Hair. 

5. The Bifid portion of the Root 
called the Bulb. 

Page 65. 



FIG. 150. 
a small portion of the fol- 
licle of a Hair of the 
Beard, with the Arteries 
supplying it — very highly 
magnified. 

1. Its Follicle. 

2. Its Pulp. 

3. The Trunk of the Hair 
without the Follicle. 

4.4. Two Arteries going to the 
Base of the Follicle. 

5.5. Their Distribution. 

6.6. The Reticulated Tissue of 
the Follicle. 



FIG. 151. 



FIG. 152. 





FIG. 153. 




FIG. 155. 




THE HAIRS AND NAILS. 



FIG. 151. 

A Segment of the Skin of 
the Beard enclosing three 
Hairs, as seen under the 
compound Microscope, with 
the Arteries injected. 

1.1. The Hairs without the Skin. 

2.2. The same in their Follicles. 

3.3. The Follicles. 

4.4. The Follicles in the Pulp. 

5.5. Two Arteries in the Internal 
Surface of the Skin. 

6.6. Branches which are distributed 
around the Hairs in the Skin. 

7.7. Branches to the Pulp. 

8.8. The Arterial Net-work around 
each Follicle. 



FIG. 152. 
The Thumb- Nail detached 
from the Thumb and seen 
on its External Surface, 
with the Epidermis of which 
it is a continuation. 

1. Root of the Nail deprived of 
the Epidermis. 



2. Its Body. 

3. Its Summit. 

4.4. The Epidermis covering the 
sides of the Nail. 
5. The Crescent or Lunula of the 
Nail. 



FIG. 153. 

The same Nail seen on its 
Internal Surface, with 
the Epidermis. 

1. The Root. 

2. The Body. 

3.3. The Sides of the Nail. 

4.4. A portion of the Epidermis 
near the Nail. 

5. The Crescent. 

The Internal Face of the Nail has 
been freed from the Rete Muco- 
sum. The prominent Lines and 
Furrows corresponding to the 
Lines and Wrinkles of the Cutis 
Vera, and covered by the Nail, 
are seen arranged in parallel 



1. 

2. 

I 3 / 

( , 4. 



FIG. 154. 

Longitudinal Section of 
the Nail of the Ring Finger. 

The Third Phalanx. 

The Adipose Tissue. 

The Skin. 

The Root of the Nail 

of the Skin in which 

is inserted. 

The Cutis Vera covered by the 

Nail. 

The Epidermis. 

Root of the Nail. 

Its Body. 

Its Summit or free End. 



and Fold 
the Root 



Lines. 



FIG. 155. 

The same Figure very highly 
magnified. 

The References from 1 to 9 inclu- 
sive as in Fig. 154. 

10. The thin Laminae of the Epi- 
dermis placed between the Nail 
and the origin of its Matrix. 
They are detached from the 
Epidermis by nature and then 
add to the proper thickness of 
the Nail itself. 

11.11.11.11. The Laminae of the 
Nail arranged in superimposed 
Layers. 



Fage 66. 



FIG. 156. 



FIG. 158. 





FIG. 157. 




FIG. 159. 




FIG. 160. 




GENERAL ANATOMY OF THE MUSCLES. 



FIG. 156. I 

JLhe stages op developement ; 
of Muscular Fibre. 

1. Arrangement of the. Primitive 
Cells in a Linear Series. 

2. The Cells united. The Nuclei 
separated and some of them 
broken up — Longitudinal Lines 
becoming apparent. 

3.4. The transverse Stripes or Bands 
beginning to show. 

5. Transverse Bands fully formed 
and dark, with the Nuclei disap- 
pearing. 

6. Elementary Fibres from the 
Adult, treated with acid, to show 
the Nuclei. 



FIG. 157. 

Another View of the stages 
op developement of Mus- 
cular Fibre. 

1. A Muscular Fibre of Animal life 
enclosed in its Sheath or Myo- 
lemma. 

2. An Ultimate Fibril of the same. 

3. A more highly magnified View 
of fig. 1., showing the true na- 
ture of the Longitudinal Striae, 
as well as the mode of formation 
of the Transverse Striae. The 
Myolemma is here so thin as to 
permit the Ultimate Fibrils to be 
seen through it. 

4. A Muscular Fibre of Organic 
life with two of its Nuclei ; taken 
from the Urinary Bladder, and 
magnified 600 Diameters. 

5. A Muscular Fibre of Organic 
life from the Stomach, magnified 
the same. 

Page 67. 



FIG. 158. 

A View of the Arrangement 
of the Fasciculi orLacerti 
of Voluntary Muscle, the 
Fibres separated at one 
End into Brush-like Bun- 
dles OF FlBRILLxE. 



FIG. 159. 
A portion of Human Muscu- 
lar Fibre, separating into 
Disks by cleavage in the 
direction of its Transverse 
Stride. 



FIG. 160. 
A View of the Fibres of Hu- 
man Muscle broken Trans- 
versely. The Fragments 
are connected by the un- 
TORN Sarcolemma or Myo- 
lemma. 



FIG. 161. 




FIG. 162. 



FIG. 163. 



FIG. 164. 






FIG. 165. 




GENERAL ANATOMY OF THE MUSCLES. 



FIG. 161. 

A View of the Fragments op Striped Ele- 
mentary Fibres, showing a cleavage in op- 
posite DIRECTIONS — MAGNIFIED 300 DIAME- 
TERS. 

1. The Longitudinal Cleavage. 

2. The Transverse Cleavage, the Longitudinal Lines 
being scarcely visible. 

3. Incomplete Fracture, following the opposite sur- 
faces of a Disc which stretches across the Inter- 
val and retains the two Fragments in connexion. 
The Edge and Surface of this Disc are seen to be 
minutely granular, the Granules corresponding in 
size to the thickness of the Disc and to the dis- 
tance between the faint Longitudinal Lines. 

4. Another Disc nearly detached. 

5. A detached Disc more highly magnified, showing 
the Sarcous Elements. 

6. Fibrillae separated by violence from each other at 
the broken end of the Fibre. 

7.8. The two appearances commonly presented by the 
separated single Fibrillae ; more highly magnified, 
at 7 the spaces are rectangular, at 8 the borders 
are scolloped and the spaces bead-like. 



FIG. 163. 

A Transverse Section of the Ultimate Fi- 
brils of the Biceps, showing their Polygo- 
nal Form and the Ultimate Fibrils com- 
posing them. 



FIG. 164. 

A mass of Ultimate Fibres from the Pecto- 
ralis Major of the Human Fcetus at Term. 
These Fibres have been immersed in a so- 
lution of Tartaric Acid, and their nume- 
rous CORPUSCULES TURNED IN VARIOUS DIREC- 
TIONS, AND SHOWING SOME NUCLEOLI. 



FIG. 162. 
A Fragment of Muscular Fibre from the 

MACERATED HEART OF AN Ox, SHOWING THE 
FORMATION OF THE StRIJE BY THE AGGREGA- 
TION of the Beaded Fibrill^;. 

Pace 



FIG. 165. 

A View of the Attachment of Tendon to 
Muscular Fibre, as shown in the Skate. 
The component Fibres of Tendinous Struc- 
ture ARE ARRANGED WITH GREAT REGULARITY, 
PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER, AND ARE ATTACHED 
TO THE END OF THE SaRCOLEMMA, WHICH TER- 
MINATES ABRUPTLY AND WITHOUT THE TAPER- 
ING of the Muscular Fibre, as some have 
supposed. 

68. 



FIG. 166. 



FIG. 167. 





MUSCLES OF THE FACE AND NECK. 



FIG, 166. | 11. 

A View op the manner in which the Nerves \ ^* 

13. 

14. 



SUPPLYING THE MUSCLES TERMINATE. 



FIG. 167. 
A Front View op the Superficial Layer op 
Muscles on the Face and Neck. 



15. 
16. 
17, 



1.1. Anterior Bellies of the Occipito-Frontalis. j 

2. Orbicularis or Sphincter Palpebrarum. \ 18. 

3. Nasal Slip of Occipito-Frontalis. j 19, 

4. Anterior Auriculae. 

5. Compressor Naris. 20. 

6. Levator Labii Superioris Alseque Nasi. 

7. Levator Anguli Oris \ 21. 

8. Zygomaticus Minor. j 22, 

9. Zygomaticus Major. s 23, 
10. Masseter. I 24, 

Page 69. 



Depressor Labii Superioris Alseque Nasi. 
Buccinator. 
Orbicularis Oris. 

The denuded Surface of the Inferior Maxil- 
lary Bone. 

Depressor Anguli Oris. 
Depressor Labii Inferioris. 
The portion of the Platysma-Myodes that 
passes on to the Mouth, or the Musculus Ri- 
sorius. 

Slerno-Hyoideus. 

Platysma-Myodes. It is wanting on the 
other side of the Figure. 
Superior Belly of the Omo-Hyoideus near its 
insertion. 

Sterno-Cleido-Mastoideus. 
Scalenus Medius. 
Inferior Belly of Onio-Hyoid. 
Cervical Edge of the Trapezius. 



FIG. 168. 



FIG. 169. 




MUSCLES OF THE FACE AND NECK. 



FIG. 168. * 

A Front View of the Deep-seated Layer or 
Muscles on the Face and Neck. 

1.1. Temporalis. > 

2. The Eye-Ball in the Orbit with its Oblique Mus- i 
cles in situ. s 

3. Corrugator Supercilii. \ 

4. Points of insertion of the Orbicularis Palpebrarum. \ 

5. Anterior Auriculas. 

6. Orbitar portion of the Levator Labii Superioris 
Alaeque Nasi. 

7. Compressor Naris. 

8. Levator Labii Superioris in its Lower Third, show- 
ing its intermixture with the Orbicularis Oris. 

9. Levator Anguli Oris. 

10.11. Depressor Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi, seen 
on both sides of the Face. 

12. Buccinator. 

13. Masseter. 

14. Orbicularis Oris at the angle of the Mouth. 

15. Orbicularis Oris as shown in the edge of the 
Lower Lip. 

16. Depressor Anguli Oris. 

17. Levator Menti vel Labii Inferioris. 

18. Depressor Labii Inferioris. 

19. Adipose Tissue on the Chin. 

20. Scalenus Medius. 

21. Sterno-Hyoideus. 

22. Omo-Hyoideus. 

23. Sterno-Cleido-Mastoideus. 

24. Trapezius as seen on the Neck. 

25. Attachment of the Fascia Profunda Colli to the 
Clavicle. 



FIG. 1G9. 
A Lateral View of the Deep-seated Mus- 
cles of the Face and Neck. 

1. The Inferior Maxillary Bone. 

2. Superior Maxillary Bone. 

3. Malar Bone. 

4.4. Orbicularis Oris Muscle. 

5. Buccinator. 

6. External Pterygoid. 

7. Internal Pterygoid. 

8. Glenoid Cavity. 

9. Constrictor Pharyngis Superior. 

10. Mastoid Process of the Temporal Bone. 

11. Splenius. 

12. Stylo-Pharyngeus. 

13. Stylo-Glossus. 

14. Constrictor Pharyngis Medius. 

15. Longus Colli. 

16. Scalenus Medius. 

17. Levator Scapulas. 

18. Serratus Superior Posticus. 

19. Scalenus Anticus. 

20. Scalenus Posiicus. 

21. Rhomboideus Minor. 

22. Section of the Trapezius. 

23. Supra-Spinatus. 

24. Acromion Scapulae. 

25. First Rib. 

26. Sterno-Clavicular Articulation. 

27. Clavicle. 

28. Trachea. 

29. Oesophagus. 

30. Crico-Thyroideus. 

31. Constrictor Pharyngis Inferior. 

32. Thyro-Hyoid. 

33. Thyro-Hyoid Ligament. 

34. Os Hyoides. 

35. Hyo-Glossus. 

36. Mylo-Hyoid. 



Page 70. 



FIG. 171. 




MUSCLES OF THE HEAD AND NECK. 



FIG. 170. 
A Side View of the Superficial Layer 
Muscles on the Face and Neck. 

1. Tendon of the Occipito-Frontalis. 

2. Its Frontal Belly. 

3. Anterior Auriculae. 

4. Attollens Auriculae. 

5. Occipital Belly of the Occipito-Frontalis. 

6. Retrahens Auriculae. 

7. Orbicularis Palpebrarum. 

8.8. Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi. 
9. Compressor Naris. 

10. Levator Anguli Oris. 

1 1. Buccinator. 

12. Zygomaticus Minor. 

13. Orbicularis Oris and Zygomaticus Major. 

14. Platysma Myodes. 

15. Splenius. 

16. Masseter. 

17. Sterno-Cleido Mastoid. 

18. Levator Scapulae. 

19. Scalenus Medius. 

20. Trapezius. 



OF 



FIG. 171. 
A Lateral View of the Deep-seated Layer 
of Muscles on the Face and Neck. 



j 5. 



9 " 
10. 

\ 12. 
\ 13. 

| 15. 
| 16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 
I 20. 

21. 
| 22. 
j 23. 

24. 

25. 

\ 26. 

Page 71 



Temporal Muscle deprived of its Fascia. 

Corrugator Supercilii. 

Nasal Slip of the Occipito Frontalis. 

Superior or Nasal Extremity of the Levator Labii, 

Superioris Alaeque Nasi. 

Compressor Naris. 

Levator Anguli Oris. 

Depressor Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi. 

Buccinator. 

Orbicularis Oris. 

Depressor Labii Inferioris. 

Levator Labii Inferioris. 

Anterior Belly of the Digastricus. 

Mylo-Hyoid. 

Stylo-Hyoid. 

Thyro-Hyoid. 

Upper Belly of the Omo-Hyoid. 

Sterno-Cleido Mastoid. 

Sterno-Hyoid. 

Scalenus Anticus. 

Pectoralis Major. 

Deltoid. 

Trapezius. 

Scalenus Medius. 

Levator Scapulae and Scalenus Posticus. 

Splenius. 

Complexus. 






FIG. 172. 




(Drawn from nature after Dr. Horner's dissection.) 



MUSCLES OF THE EYE-LID. 



FIG. 172. 
A View op the Tensor Tarsi or Muscle of 
Horner, as shown by a Dissection of the 
Internal Surface of the Eye-Lids. 

1. Origin of the Tensor Tarsi Muscle, from the 
superior part of the Os Unguis, just in advance 
of the Vertical Suture, between the Os Pla- 
num and the Os Unguis. 

2. Superior Oblique Muscle of the Eye-Ball. 

3. Inferior Oblique Muscle of the Eye-Ball. 

4. Origin of the Orbicularis Palpebrarum, from 
the Nasal Process of the Os Maxillare Supe- 
rius, Internal Angular Process of the Os Frontis 



5. 

6. 

7.7. 



and the contiguous part of the Os Unguis — 

also along the whole Superior Margin of the 

Internal Palpebral Ligament. 

A portion of the Palpebral Conjunctiva. 

External Palpebral Ligament and Canthus 

of the Eye-Lid. 

Lower Portion and Terminating Fibres of 

the Orbicularis Palpebrarum. 

Bifurcation of the Tensor Tarsi Muscle at 

the Base of the Caruncula Lachrymalis. 

The Insertions of the Muscle near the Puncta 

are also shown. 

Lachrymal Sac. 



Page 72. 



FIG. 173. 





VsdS* 



FIG. 175. 



FIG. 176. 





MUSCLES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, 



FIG. 173. 

A View of the Pte- 
rygoid Muscles, as 
shown by the remo- 
VAL of the Zygoma- 
tic Arch and the 
greater part of the 
Ramus of the Jaw. 

1. Sphenoidal portion of the 
External Pterygoid. 

2. Pterygoid portion of the 
External Pterygoid. 

3. Internal Pterygoid. 



FIG. 174. 

A Viewof the Superfi- 
cial and Deep-seat- 
ed Muscles on the 
Front of the Neck 

1. Posterior Belly of the 
Digastricus. 

2. Its Anterior Belly. 

3. Ligamentous Loop on 
the Os Hyoides through 
which its Tendon plays. 

4. Stylo-Hyoideus. 

5. Mylo-Hyoideus. 

6. Genio-Hyoideus. 

7. The Tongue. 

8. Hyo-Glossus. 

9. Stylo-Glossus. 



10. Stylo-Pharyngeus. 

11. Sterno-CleidoMastoid. 

12. Its Sternal Origin. 

13. Its Clavicular Origin. 

14. Sterno-Hyoideus. 

15. Sterno-Thyroid of the 
Right Side. 

16. Thyro-Hyoideus. 

17. Hyoid Belly of the 
Omo-Hyoid. 

18. Scapular portion of the 
Omo-Hyoid. 

19. Anterior Edge of the 
Trapezius. 

20. Scalenus Anticus of 
the Right Side. 

2". Scalenus Posticus. 
22. Scalenus Medius. 



FIG. 175. 

A Vertical Section 
of the Tongue and 
Lower Jaw, show- 
ing theMuscles at- 
tached THERETO. 

1. A Section of theLower 
Jaw. 

2. Styloid Process of the 
Temporal Bone. 

3. Stylo-Glossus Muscle. 

4. Lower portion of Ge- 
nio Hyo-Glossus. 



5. Upper portion of Genio- } 
Hyo-Glossus. i 

6. Tip or Point of the < 
Tongue, showing the I 
Vertical Lingual Mus- £ 
cle. < 

7. Surface of the Tongue. < 

8. Transversales Linguae. ? 

9. Superficialis Linguae. I 

10. Superior Extremity of s 
the Constrictor Pha- j 
ryngis Medius. 

11. Stylo-Pharyngeus. 

12. Its Insertion. 

13. Constrictor Pharyngis 
Inferior. 

14. Os Hyoides. 

15. Thyro-HyoidLigam't. 

16. Thyroid Cartilage. 



FIG. 176. 
A Transverse Sec- 
tion of the Neck, 
showing the Fascia 
Profunda, and its 
Prolongations as 
Sheaths for the 
Muscles. 

1. Platysma Myodes. 

2. Trapezius. 

3. Ligamentum Nuchae. 

4. Sheath of Sterno-Cleido-! 
Mastoid. 



5. Muscle itself. 

6. Point of Union of its 
Fascia. 

7. Point of Union of the 
Fascia Profunda Colli 
of each side of theNeck. 

8. Section of the Sterno- 
Hyoid Muscle. 

9. Section of the Omo- 
Hyoid Muscle. 

10. Section of the Sterno- 
Thyroid Muscle. 

11. Lateral Lobe of the 
Thyroid Gland. 

12. Trachea. 

13. Oesophagus. 

14. Blood-vesselsandPneu- 
mogastric Nerve in their 
Sheath. 

15. Longus Colli. 

16. Rectus Anticus Major. 

17. Scalenus Anticus. 

18. Scalenus Medius and 
Posticus. 

19. Splenius Capitis. 

20. Splenius Colli. 

21. Levator Scapula. 

22. Complexus. 

23. Trachelo-Mastoid. 

24. Transversalis Cervicis. 

25. Cervicalis Descendens. 

26. Semi-spinalis Cervicis. 

27. Multifidus Spinae. 

28. A Cervical Vertebra. 



Page 73. 



i 



■ 



FIG. 177 



FIG. 17* 





MUSCLES ON THE FRONT OF THE THORAX, 



FIG. 177. 
A View of the Superficial Muscles of the 
Upper Front of the Trunk. 

1. Sterno-Hyoid. 

2. Sterno-Cleido Mastoid. 

3. Sterno-Thyroid. 

4. Clavicular portion of the Sterno-Cleido Mas- 
toid. 

5. Anterior Edge of the Trapezius. 

6. Clavicle. 

7. Clavicular Origin of the Pectoralis Major. 

8. Deltoid. 

9. Fold of Fibres of the Pectoralis Major on 
the Anterior Edge of the Axilla. 

10. Middle of the Pectoralis Major. 

11. The crossing and interlocking of the Fibres \ 
of the External Oblique of one side of the j 
Abdomen with those of the other. 

12. Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 

13. Teres Major. j 

14. Serratus Major Anticus. 

15. Superior Heads of the External Oblique in- 
terlocking with the Serratus Major. 

Page 



FIG. 178. 

A View of the Deeper-seated Muscles on 
the Upper Front of the Trunk. 

1. Cut portion of the Sterno-cleido-Mastoid. 

2. Scalenus Medius. 

3. Scalenus Anticus. 

4. Trapezius. 

5. Omo-Hyoid. 

6. Sterno-Hyoid. 

7. Sterno-Thyroid. 

8. Subclavius Muscle. 

9. First External Intercostal. 

10. Insertion of the Pectoralis Minor. 

11. Cut portion of the Coraco-Brachialis and 
short Head of the Biceps. 

12. Body of the Pectoralis Minor. 

13. An External Intercostal Muscle. 

14. Sub-Scapularis. 

15. Latissimus Dorsi. 

16. Serratus Major Anticus. 



KIG. 179. 



FIG. 180. 





MUSCLES OK THE FRONT OF THE TRUNK 



FIG. 179. 

A View of the Superficial Muscles of the 
Left Side and of the Deep Muscles of 
the Right Side, on the Front of the 
Trunk. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 



14. 

15, 
16 

17 

18 



Pectoralis Major. 
Deltoid. 

Anterior Edge of Latissimus-Dorsi. 
Serrated Edge of Serratus Major Anticus. 
Subclavius Muscle. 
Pectoralis Minor. 
C oraco-Brachialis. 
Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 
Coracoid Process of the Scapula. 
Serratus Major Anticus after the removal of 
the Obliquus Externus Abdominis. 
External Intercostal Muscle of the Fifth In- 
tercostal Space. 

External Oblique of the Abdomen. 
Its Tendon. The Median Line is the Linea 
Alba. — The Line to the Right of the Num- 
ber is the Linea Semilunaris. 
The portion of the Tendon of the External 
Oblique, known as Poupart's Ligament. 
External Abdominal Ring. 
Rectus Abdominis. The White Spaces are ! 
the Linea Transversa. 
Pyramidalis. 

Internal Oblique of the Abdomen. \ 

Page 



19. Common Tendon of the Internal Oblique 
and Transversalis. 

20. Crural Arch. 

21. Fascia Lata Femoris. 

22. Saphenous Opening. 

The Crescentic Edge of the Sartorial Fascia 
is seen just above fig. 22, and the Interior or 
Pubic Point of the Crescent is known as Hey's 
Ligament. 



FIG. 180. 

A Lateral View of the Muscles of the 
Trunk, especially on the Abdomen. 

1. Latissimus Dorsi. 

2. Serratus Major Anticus. 

3. Upper portion of the External Oblique. 

4. Two of the External Intercostal Muscles. 

5. Two of the Internal Intercostal Muscles. 

6. Transversalis Abdominis. 

7. Fascia Lumborum. 

8. Posterior part of the Sheath of the Rectus or 
Anterior Aponeurosis of the Transversalis 
Muscle. 

9. The Rectus Abdominis cut off and in its 
Sheath. 

10. Rectus Abdominis of the Right Side. 

11. Crural Arch. 

12. Gluteus Magnus — Medius and Tensor Va- 
ginae Femoris covered by the Fascia Lata. 



FIG. 181. 



FIG. 182. 




MUSCLES AND FASCIA OF THE ABDOMEN. 



FIG. 181. 
A View of the External parts concerned 
in Inguinal and Femoral Hernia. 

1.1. The common Integuments and Adipose Tis- 
sue of the Abdomen turned back. 

2. The Penis with its Suspensory Ligament 
deprived of the Integuments. 

3. Integuments of the Scrotum drawn down. 

4. Fascia Superficialis of the Abdomen. 

5. The same on the Thigh. 

6. The Left Spermatic Cord covered by the 
Fascia Superficialis. 

7. The Inguinal Glands which are placed on 
the Fascia Superficialis. 

8. Branch of the External Pudic Artery. 

9. Fascia Superficialis turned off the Thigh. 

10. Tendon of the External Oblique. 

11. Linea Alba. 

12. External Oblique Muscle. 

13. External Abdominal Ring. 

14. Its Superior Column. 

15. Its Inferior Column. 

16. Testicle covered by the Cremaster Muscle. 

17. Anterior Superior Spinous Process. 

18. Close Attachment of the Fascia Superficialis 
on the outside of the Thigh. 

19. Cribriform Openings in the Fascia LataFe- 
moris. 

20. Saphenous Opening. 

21. Branch of the Saphena Vein. 

22. Saphena Vein. 

23. External Femoral Ring. 

24. Testicle. 

Pai 



FIG. 182. 

A View of the Deep-seated parts concerned 
in Inguinal and Femoral Hernia. 

1.1. Integuments and Adipose Tissue. 

2. Integuments of the Scrotum. 
3.3. Fascia Superficialis Abdominis and Fascia 
Lata Femoris turned off. 

4. External Oblique Muscle. 

5. Its Tendon. 

6. Linea Alba. 

7. Lower part of the External Oblique Tendon 
divided and turned back. 

8. Right Testicle in the Tunica Vaginalis 
Testis. 

9. Internal Oblique and Transversalis Muscles. 

10. Epigastric Artery and Vein as placed be- 
tween the Fascia Transversalis and the Peri- 
toneum. 

11. Points to the Surface of the Peritoneum 
through the Internal Abdominal Ring. 

12. Cord covered by the Cremaster Muscle 
laying in the Abdominal Canal. 

13. External Abdominal Ring laid open. 

14. )Fascia Propria of the Vessels laid open so 

15. > as to expose them. 

16. Pectineus. 

17. The Vessels in their Sheath. 

18. Penis and Ligamentum Suspensorium. 

19. Testicle and Cord in its entire length. 
ge 76. 



i 



FIG. 183. 




FIG. 184. 




MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK, 



FIG. 183. 

A Lateral View of the Deep-seated Muscles 
of the Trunk. 

1. Vertebra. 

2. First Rib. 

3. Superior Origin of the Serratus Major An tic us. 

4. Acromion Scapulae. 

5. [Show the Convergence of the Fibres of the 
6 A Serratus Major and its Insertion into the 

7. [ whole Base of the Scapula. 

8. An External Intercostal Muscle. 

9. Section of the Sacro-Lumbalis. 

10. Transversal is Abdominis. 

11. Abdominal Aponeurosis. 

12. Rectus Abdominis. 

13. Fascia Lumborum. 

14.14. Costal Origins of the Serratus Major. 

15. External Intercostal Muscle. 

16.16. Two Internal Intercostal M .scles. 



FIG. 184. 

A View of the Abdominal Muscles and the 
Abdominal or Inguinal Canal. 

1. External Oblique Muscle of the Abdomen. 

2. Its Aponeurosis. 

3. Its Tendon slit up and turned back to show 
the Canal. 

4. Anterior Superior Spinous Processes. 

Page 



5. Upper portion of Poupart's Ligament. 
- 6. External Column of the External Ring. 

7. Internal Column of the External Ring. 

8. Intercrossing of the Tendons of each Side. 

9. Body of the Pubes. 

10. Upper Boundary of the External Abdominal 
Ring — the Line points to the Ring. 

10 > Fascia Transversalis. 

13. Fibres of the Internal Oblique turned up. 

14. Fibres of the Transversalis Muscle. 

15. Points to the Internal Ring, the Opening is 
enlarged for the demonstration. 

16. Sartorius. 

17. Fascia Lata Femoris. 

18. Rectus Femoris. 

19. Adductor Longus. 

20. Penis. 

21. Fascia Lata of the opposite Thigh. 

22. Point where the Saphena Vein enters the 
Femoral. 

23. Fascia Lata as applied to the Vessels. 

24. Insertion of the Transversalis Muscle on the 
Pubis. 

25.26. Correspond to 11.12. of the opposite side 
and indicate the Fascia Transversalis. 

27. Poupart's Ligament turned off from the In- 
ternal Muscles. 

28. Transversalis Abdominis. 

29. Internal Oblique. 

30. Rectus Abdominis. 

77. 



FIG. 185. 





MUSCLES OF THE BACK. 



FIG. 185. 
A View of the Muscles on the Front and 
Sides of the Cervical Vertebrae. 

1. Rectus Capitis Anticus Major. 

2. Scalenus Anticus. 

3. Lower portion of the Longus Colli on 
Right Side. 

4. Rectus Capitis Anticus Minor. 

5. Upper portion of the Longus Colli on 
Left Side. 

6. Seventh Cervical Vertebra. 

7. Scalenus Medius. 

8. Scalenus Posticus. 

9. One of the Inter-Transversales Muscles. 
10. Rectus Capitis Lateralis. 



the 



the 



FIG. 186. 

A View of the Muscles of the Back as i 

SHOWN AFTER THE REMOVAL OF THE INTEGU- 
MENTS. 

1. Occipital Origin of the Trapezius. 

2. Sterno-Cleido-Mastoideus. 

Page 



3. Middle of the Trapezius. 

4. Insertion of the Trapezius into the Spine of 
the Scapula. 

5. Deltoid. 

6. Second Head of the Triceps Extensor Cubiti. 

7. Its Superior Portion. 

8. Scapular portion of the Latissimus Dorsi. 

9. Axillary Border of the Pectoralis Major. 

10. Axillary Border of the Pectoralis Minor. 

11. Serratus Major Anticus. 

12. Infra-Spinatus. 

13. Teres Minor. 

14. Teres Major. 

15. Middle of the Latissimus Dorsi. 

16. External Oblique of the Abdomen. 

17. Gluteus Medius. 

18. Gluteus Minimus. 

19. Gluteus Magnus. 

20. Fascia Lumborum. 

7S. 



PIG. is: 




MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK. 



A 



10 

11 
12 
13 

11 

15, 
16, 

17, 

IS. 
19, 



FIG. 187. 

Vertical Section of the Front op the 
Trunk, showing its Posterior Parieties 
and the Cavities op the Chest and Abdo- 
men. 

. Stemo-Cleido-Mastoid. 

. Longus Colli. 

. Scalenus Anticus. 

. Upper portion of the Serratus Major Anticus. 

, Infra Costales Muscles or Appendices to the 

Internal Intercostal Muscles. 
, Internal Intercostal Muscles. 
, Foramen Quadratum for the Inferior Vena- 

Cava. 

Back part of the Cordifonn Tendon of the 

Diaphragm. 
, Middle of the Diaphragm showing the Fora- 
men CEsophageum. 

Deltoid. 

Insertion of the Pectoralis Major. 
, Biceps Flexor Cuhiti. 

Foramen Aorticum of the Diaphragm. 

Origin of the Lesser Muscle of the Dia- 
phragm. 

Quadratus Lumborum. 

Its Sheath. 

Psoas Magnus. 

Origin of the Psoas Parvus. 

Iliacus Internus. 

Fas 



20. Pyriformis. 

21. Levator Ani and Coceygeus. 

22. Tensor Vaginae Femoris. 

23. Adductor Longus. 

24. Pectineus. 

25. Rectus Femoris. 

26. Sartorius. 



FIG. 188. 
A View of the Under Side of the Diaphragm. 

2 * ^The Greater Muscle of the Diaphragm in- 
3 J serted into the Cordiform Tendon. 

4. The small triangular space behind the Ster- 
num, covered only by Serous Membrane and 
through which Hernia sometimes pass. 

5. Ligamentum Arcuatum of the Left Side. 
G. Point of Origin of the Psoas Mao-nus. 

7. A small Opening for the Lesser Splanchnic 
Nerve. 

8. One of the Crura of the Diaphragm. 

9. Fourth Lumbar Vertebra. 

10. Another Crus or portion of the Lesser Muscle 
of the Diaphragm. 
Hiatus Aorticus. 
Foramen Q3sophageum. 
Foramen Quadratum. 
Psoas Magnus Muscle. 
Quadratus Lumborum. 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

79. 



FIG. 189. 



FIG. IPO. 





MUSCLES OF THE BACK. 



FIG. 189. | 

A View op the Second Layer of Muscles of 
the Back. j 

1. Trapezius. 5 

2. A portion of the Tendinous ellipse formed 5 
by the Trapezius on both sides. \ 

3. Spine of the Scapula. j 

4. Latissimus Dorsi. \ 

5. Deltoid. 

6. Infra-Spinatus and Teres Minor. 

7. External Oblique of the Abdomen. 

8. Gluteus Medius. 

9. Gluteus Magnus of each side. 

10. Levator Scapulae. 

11. Rhomboideus Minor. 

12. Rhomboideus Major. 

13. Splenius Capitis. ) 

14. Splenius Colli. 

15. A portion of the Origin of the Latissimus ; 
Dorsi. 

16. Serratus Inferior Posticus. jj 

17. Supra-Spinatus. 

18. Infra-Spinatus. 

19. Teres Minor. 

20. Teres Major. $ 

21. Long Head of the Triceps Extensor Cubiti. 

22. Serratus Major Anticus. j 

23. Internal Oblique of the Abdomen. ; 

Page 



FIG. 190. 
A View of the Muscles of the Back which 
fill up the Fossa on either side of the 
Spinous Processes of the Vertebrae. 

1. Tendinous Origin of the Longissimus Dorsi. 

2. Upper portion of the Sacro-Lumbalis. 

3. Upper portion of the Longissimus Dorsi. 

4. Spinalis Dorsi. 

5. Cervicalis Descendens. 

6. Transversalis Cervicis. 

7. Trachelo-Mastoideus. 

8. Complexus. 

9. Insertion of the Transversalis Cervicis. 

10. Semi-Spinalis Dorsi. 

11. Semi-Spinalis Cervicis. 

12. Rectus Capitis Posticus Minor. 

13. Rectus Capitis Posticus Major. 

14. Obliquus Capitis Superior. 

15. Obliquus Capitis Inferior. 

16. Multifidus Spina? at its Lower Part. The 
rest is concealed by other Muscles. 

17.17. Levatores Costarum. 

18. Inter-Transversaiii. 

19. Quadratus Lumborum. 
so. 



FIG. 191. 




FIG. 192. 




MUSCLES OF THE BACK, 



FIG. 191. 

A View of the Deep-seated or Fourth Layer 
of Muscles on the Back of the Head and 
Trunk. 

1. Occiput. 

2. Mastoid Process of the Temporal Bone. 

3. First Cervical Vertebra. 

4. Rectus Capitis Posticus Minor. 

5. Rectus Capitis Posticus Major. 

6. Obliquus Capitis Superior. 

7. Obliquus Capitis Inferior. 
8.8. Inter-Spinales of the Neck. 

9. Inter-Spinales of the Dorsal Vertebra?. 

10.10. Levatores Costarum. 

11.11. Intercostales. 

12.12.12. Multifidus Spinae from its Origin to its 
Insertion. 
13.13. Cut Origins of the Multifidus Spinse. 

14. Cut Insertions of the Multifidus Spinae. 

15. Quadratus Lumborum. 

16.16. Insertions of the Longissimus Dorsi. 
17.17.18. Insertions of the Sacro-Lumbalis. 

Pagt 



19. External Intercostals. 

20. Outer portion of the Quadratus Lumborum. 

21. Section of the Fascia Lumborum. 

22. Inter-Transversarii. 



FIG. 192. 

An Enlarged View of the Muscles attached 
to the Cervical Vertebrae Behind. 

1. Atlas. 

2. Semi-Spinalis Cervicis at its Upper part. 

3. Insertions of the Cervicalis Descendens. 

4. Middle of the Semi-Spinalis Cervicis. 
5.6. Origins of the Cervicalis Descendens. 

7. Lower portion of the Semi-Spinalis Cer- 
vicis. 

8. Tenth Dorsal Vertebra. 

9. Semi-Spinalis Dorsi. 

10.11. Origins of the Transversalis Cervicis. 
12.13. Its Insertions. 

61. 



FIG. 193. 



FIG. 194. 




1 f> 5 




FIG. 195. 



FIG. 196. 





MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER. 



FIG. 193. 

A View of the Deltoid Muscle. 
Clavicle. 
Origin of the Deltoid from the Clavicle, Acromion 
and Spine of the Scapula. 

5. Body of the Scapula. 

6. Middle of the Deltoid, showing the Fasciculated 
character of its Fibres. 

7. Its Insertion. 

8. Shaft of the Os Humeri. 



FIG. 194. 

An Anterior View of the Muscles of the 
Shoulder. 

1. Upper part of the Body of the Scapula. 

2. Supra Spinatus Muscle. 

3. Section of Acromion Process. 

4. Coracoid Process. 

5. Origin of the Second or short Head of the Biceps. 

6. Sub-Scapularis near its Insertion. 

7. Deltoid. 

8. Tendon of the Pectoralis Major. 

9. Insertion of the Deltoid Muscle. 

10. Brachialis Internus. 

11. Cut Extremity of the Os Humeri. 

12. Triceps Extensor Cubiti. 

13. Tendon of the Latissimus Dorsi. 

14. Teres Major. 

15. Axillary portion of the Latissimus Dorsi. 

16. Axillary portion of the Sub-Scapularis. 

17. Origin of 'he Teres Major. 

18. Lower portion of the Scapula. 

Pa ? 



FIG. 195. 

A Posterior View of the Muscles of the 
Shoulder with the Deltoid. 

1. Acromion Scapulae. 

2. Supra- Spinatus Muscle. 

3. Spine of the Scapula. 

4. Posterior portion of the Origin of the Deltoid. 

5. Infra-Spinatus Muscle. 

6. Teres Major. 

7. Teres Minor. 

8. Long Head of the Triceps Extensor. 

9. Its Second Head. 

10. The Shaft of the Os Humeri. 

11. Brachialis Internus. 

12. Insertion of the Deltoid. 

13. Its middle portion forming the round part of the 
Shoulder. 



FIG. 196. 

A Posterior View of the Muscles of the 
Shoulder which strengthen the Articu- 



lation. 

1. Acromion Scapulas. 

2. Supra-Spinatus Muscle. 

3. Upper Angle of the Scapula. 

4. Spine of the Scapula. 

5. Origin of the Infra-Spinatus Muscle. 
6.7. Origin of the Teres Major. 

8. Origin of the Teres Minor. 

9. Insertion of the Teres Major. 

10. Shaft of the Os Humeri. 

11. Lower part of the Capsular Ligament. 

12. Insertion of the Teres Minor. 

13. Insertion of the Infra-Spinatus. 
82. 






* 



■ 



FIG. 197. 




**' -' J 



FASCIA AND MUSCLES OF THE UPPER, EXTREMITY. 



FIG. 197. 
A View of the Fascia Brachi- 
als IN ITS WHOLE EXTENT. 

1. Portion covering the Deltoid 
Muscle. 

2. Portion covering the upper part 
of the Biceps. 

3. Portion covering the Coraco- 
Brachialis. 

4. Portion covering the lower part 
of the Biceps. 

5. Tendon of the Biceps. 

6. Opening for the Vein. 

7. Aponeurosis as strengthened by 
the Expansion from the Tendon 
of the Biceps. 

8. Fascia over the Flexor Sublimis. 

9. Fascia over the Flexor Carpi 
Radialis. 

10. Commencement of the Palmar 
Fascia. 



FIG. 198. 

A View of the Inter-Muscu- 
lar Fasciae or Sheaths of 
the Muscles of the Fore- 
Arm. The thickness of the I 
Sheaths has been exagge- 
rated IN ORDER TO SHOW 
THEM BETTER. 

1. Inferior Extremity of the Sheath j 
of the Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 

2. Tendon of the Biceps cut off just 
above its Insertion. s 



3. Aponeurotic Attachment at the 
Internal Condyle of the Flexors 
of the Fore-Arm. 

4. Sheath of the Pronator Radii 
Teres. 

5. Sheath of the Palmaris Longus. 

6. Sheath of the Flexor Carpi Ul- 
naris. 

7. Sheath of the Flexor Carpi Ra- 
dialis. 

8. Sheath of the Supinator Radii 
Longus. 

9. Fibro Cellular Tissue covering 
the Flexor Sublimis. 

10. Tendon of the Supinator Radii 
Longus cut offnear its Insertion. 

11. Tendon of the Flexor Carpi 
Radialis cut off near its Inser- 
tion. 

12. Tendon of the Flexor Carpi 
Ulnariscut off near its Insertion. 

13. Palmaris Brevis. 

14. Openings in the Palmar Fascia 
for the Superficial Nerves. 

15. Fascia Palmaris. 



FIG. 199. 

A View of the Muscles and j 
Tendons on the Back of 
the Hand. 

1. Lower portion of the Extensor 
Communis Digitorum. 

2. Extensor Minor Pollicis Manus. 

3. Tendons of the Extensor Com- 
munis. 

Page 83. 



4. Extensor Major Pollicis. 

5. The Ulna. 

6. Tendon of the Auricularis. 

7. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon. 

8. Posterior Carpal Ligament. 

9. Insertion of the Extensor Carpi 
Ulnaris into the MetacarpalBone 
of the Little Finger. 

10. Abductor Minimi Digiti. 

11. Middle Tendon of the Extensor 
Communis. 

12. Tendon to the Ring Finger. 

13. Prior Annularis. 

14. Flexor Parvus Minimi Digiti 
Manus. 

15. Interosseous Digiti Auricularis. 

16.16.16. Arrangement of the Ex- 
tensor Communis Tendons at 
the Phalangial Articulations. 

17. Points to the Interossei Muscles 
on the Palm of the Hand. 

18. Insertions of the Extensor Com- 
munis. 

19. Cross Slips connecting the differ- 
ent Tendons of the Extensor 
Communis. 

20. Tendon of the Indicator. 

21. Prior Indicis. 

22. Insertion of the Extensor Major 
Pollicis. 

23. Abductor Indicis Manus. 

24. Insertion of the Extensor Carpi 
Radialis Longior. 

25. Extensor Minor PolIicisTendon. 

26. Extensor Major PolIicisTendon. 

27. Insertion of the Tendon of the 
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevior. 



FIG. 200. 



FIG. 201. 




FIG. 202. 




MUSCLES OF THE ARM AND FORE-ARM, 



FIG. 200. 

A View of the Muscles on the 
Front of the Arm. 

1. Clavicle. 

2. Coracoid Process and Origin 
of the Short Head of the Bi- 
ceps. 

3. Acromion Scapulas. 

4. Head of the Os Humeri. 

5. Tendon of the Biceps Muscle 
in the Bicipital Groove. 

6. Ligamentum Adscititium dis- 
sected off. 

7. Cut portion of the Pectoralis 
Major. 

8. Long Head of the Biceps. 

9. Insertion of the Deltoid. 

10. Cut portion of the Tendinous 
Insertion of the Pectoralis 
Minor. 

11. Coraco-Brachialis. 

12. Short Head of the Biceps. 

13. Latissimus Dorsi. 

14. Inner portion of the Triceps. 

15. Body of the Biceps. 

16. Outer portion of the Triceps. 

17. Brachialis Internus. 

18. Origin of the Flexor Muscles. 

19. Brachialis Internus near its 
Insertion. 



20. Tendon of the Biceps. 

21. Fasciculus from the Biceps 
Tendon to the Fascia Bra- 
chialis. 

22. Flexor Carpi Radialis. 

23. Palmaris Longus. 

24. Supinator Radii Longus. 



FIG. 201. 

A View of the Muscles on 
the Back of the Arm. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

13. 
14. 

15. 

16. 
17. 



Supra-Spinatus Muscle. 
Section of the Clavicle. 
Acromion Process. 
Fossa Infra-Spinata. 
Head of the Os Humeri. 
Capsular Ligament. 
Tendon of thelnfra-Spinatus 
Muscle. 

Origin of the Long Head of 
the Triceps. 

> Teres Minor Tendon. 

Serratus Major Anticus. 

Origin of the Second Head 

of the Triceps. 

Shaft of the Humerus. 

Long Head of the Biceps 

Flexor. 

Insertion of the Pectoralis 

Major. 

Insertion of the Deltoid. 

Body of the Triceps. 

Page 84 



18. Origin of its Third Head, 
sometimes called Brachialis 
Fxternus. 

19. Middle of the Biceps Flexor. 

20. Middle of the Brachialis Ex- 
tenuis. 

21. Origin of the Supinator Ra- 
dii Longus. 

22. Lower portion of the Triceps. 

23. Origin of the Extensor Carpi 
Radialis Longior. 

24. Insertion of the Triceps. 

25. Shaft of the Ulna. 

26. Middle of the Extensor Carpi 
Radialis Longior. 

27. Extensor Communis Digito- 
rum. 



FIG. 202. 
A View of the Pronators of 
the Fore-Arm. 



9, 
10. 
11. 



Os Humeri. 

Radius. 

Ulna. 

Capsular Ligament of the 

Elbow. 

Interosseous Ligampnt. 

Origin of the Pronator Radii 

Longus. 

Its Insertion. 

Supinator Radii Brevis. 

Pronator Quadratus. 

Tendon of the Biceps. 

Carpal Articulation. 



FIG. 203. 



FIG. 204. 





MUSCLES OF THE ARM. 



FIG. 203. 

An Anterior View of the Deep-seated Mus- 
cles of the Arm. 

1. Clavicle. 

2. Coracoid Process of the Scapula. 

3. Acromion Scapulae. 

4. Head of the Os Humeri. 

5. Tendon of the Long Head of the Biceps. 

6. Upper portion of the Coraco-Brachialis. 

7. Origin of the Short Head of the Biceps. 

8. Body of the Coraco-Brachialis. 

9. Insertion of the Pectoralis Major. 

10. Latissimus Dorsi. 

11. Insertion of the Deltoid. 

12. Origin of the Brachialis Internus. 

13. Insertion of the Coraco-Brachialis. 

14. Middle portion of the Triceps. 

15. Its Lower Anterior Portion. 

16. Body of the Brachialis Internus. 

17. Internal Condyle. 

18. } T 

jg > Insertion of the Brachialis Internus. 

20. Supinator Radii Longus. 

21. Opening in the Capsular Ligament. 

22. Cut Tendon of the Biceps at its Insertion. 

23. Supinator Radii Brevis. 

24. Fascia. 

Page 



A 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 

28. 

85. 



FIG. 204. 
Lateral View of the Deep-seated Mus- 
cles on the Back of the Arm. 
, Section of the Clavicle. 
. Fossa Supra-Spinata of the Scapula. 
, Base of the Scapula. 
, Coraco- Acromial Ligament. 

Coracoid Process. 
, Origin of the Coraco-Brachialis. 

Section of the Sub-Scapularis Muscle. 

Head of the Os Humeri. 

Section of the Body of the Scapula. 

Origin of the Long Head of the Triceps. 

Insertion of the Latissimus Dorsi. 

Edge of the Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 

Coraco-Brachialis. 

v Origin of the Second Head of the Triceps. 

Lower portion of the Coraco-Brachialis. 

Body of the Biceps. 

Body of the Triceps. 

Origin of the Third Head of the Triceps. 
{ Its middle portion, known as the Brachialis 
( Externus. 

Brachialis Internus. 

Its Insertion. 

Capsular Ligament of the Elbow. 

> Origin of the Flexors of the Fore- Arm. 

Prolongation of the Tendon of the Biceps 

to the Fascia Brachialis. 

Olecranon. 



FIG. 205. 



FIG. 207. 




FIG. 206. 





MUSCLES OF THE FORE-ARM AND HAND, 



FIG. 205. 

A View of the Outer Layer of the Muscles 
on the Front of the Fore-Arm (Flexors). 

1. Lower portion of the Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 

2. Brachialis Internus. 

3. Lower Internal portion of the Triceps. 

4. Pronator Radii Teres. 

5. Flexor Carpi Radialis. 

6. Palmaris Longus. 

7. Part of the Flexor Sublimis Digitorum. 

8. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. 

9. Palmar Fascia. 

10. Palmaris Brevis Muscle. 

11. Abductor Pollicis Manus. 

12. Portion of the Flexor Brevis Pollicis Manus. 
The Line crosses the Adductor Pollicis. 

13. Supinator Longus. 

14. Extensor Ossis Metacarpi Pollicis. 



FIG. 206. 

A View of the Muscles on the Palm of the \ 
Hand. 

1. Annular Ligament. 
2.2. Origin and Insertion of the Abductor Pollicis. 
3. Opponens Pollicis. 

r.-w.? 



4.5. Two Bellies of the Flexor Brevis Pollicis. 

6. Adductor Pollicis. 
7.7. Lumbricales arising from Tendons of the 
Flexor Profundus Digitorum. 

8. Shows how the Tendon of the Flexor Pro- 
fundus passes through the Flexor Sublimis. 

9. Tendon of the Flexor Longus Pollicis. 

10. Abductor Minimi Digiti. 

11. Flexor Parvus Minimi Digiti. 

12. Pisiform Bone. 

13. First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle. 



FIG. 207. 

A View of the Under Layer of Muscles on 
the Front of the Fore-Arm (Flexors). 

1. Internal Lateral Ligament of the Elbow-Joint. 

2. Capsular Ligament of the Elbow-Joint. 

3. Coronary Ligament of the Head of the Ra- 
dius. 

4. Flexor Profundus Digitorum Perforans. 

5. Flexor Longus Pollicis. 

6. Pronator Quadratus. 

7. Adductor Pollicis Manus. 

8. Lumbricales. 

9. Interossei. 
66. 



1 



FIG. 208. 



FIG. 209. 




FIG. 210. 





MUSCLES. OF THE FOUE-ARM AND HIP. 



FIG. 208. 

A View of the Outer Layer of Muscles on 

the Back of the Fore-Arm (Extensors). 

1. Lower portion of the Biceps Flexor. 

2. Part of the Brachialis Internus. 

3. Low r er part of the Triceps Extensor. 

4. Supinator Radii Longus. 

5. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longior. 

6. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevior. 

7. Tendinous Insertions of these two Muscles. 

8. Extensor Communis Digitorum. 

9. Portion of the Extensor Communis Digitorum 
called Auricularis. 

10. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris. 

11. Anconeus. 

12. Portion of the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. 

13. Extensor Minor Pollicis. The Muscle nearest 
the Figure is the Extensor Ossis Metacarpi 
Pollicis. 

14. Extensor Major Pollicis. 

15. Posterior Annular Ligament. The distribu- 
tion of the Tendons of the Extensor Commu- 
nis, is seen on the backs of the Fingers. 



FTG. 209. 
A View of the Deep-seated Muscles on the 
Back of the Fore-Arm (Extensors). 

1. Lower part of the Humerus. 

2. Olecranon. 

3. Shaft of ihe Ulna. 



Anconeus Muscle. 
Supinator Radii Brevis. 
Extensor Ossis Metacarpi Pollicis. 
Extensor Minor Pollicis. 

8. Extensor Major Pollicis. 

9. Indicator. 
First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle. The others 
are also shown. 



10 



Page 



FIG. 210. 
A View of the Deep-seated Muscles at the 
Hip-Joint. 

1. Os Ilium. 

2. Os Sacrum. 

3. Posterior Sacro-IHac Ligaments. 

4. Tuber Ischii. 

5. Greater Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

6. Lesser Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

7. Trochanter Mpjor. 

8. Gluteus Minimus. 

9. Pyriformis. 

10. Geminus Superior. 

11. Obturator Internus. 

12. Geminus Inferior. 

13. Quadratus Femoris. 

14. Adductor Magnus. 

15. Vastus Externus. 

16. Biceps. 

17. Gracilis. 

18. Semi-Tendinosus. 

S7. 



FIG. 211. 



FIG. 212. 




rill Br 



*"<7v" Hili^lipi 1 W 




MUSCLES OF THE THIGH. 



FIG. 211. 

A View of the Deep-seated Muscles on the 
Posterior Part of the Hip-Joint. 

1. Fifth Lumbar Vertebra. 

2. Ilio-Lumbar Ligament. 

3. Crest of the Ilium. 

4. Anterior Superior Spinous Process. 

5. Origin of the Fascia Femoris. 

6. Gluteus Medius. 

7. Its Lower and Anterior portion. 

8. Pyriformis. 

9. Gemini. 

10. Trochanter Major. 

11. Insertion of the Gluteus Medius. 

12. Quadratus Femoris. 

13. Part of the Adductor Magnus. 

14. Insertion of the Gluteus Magnus. 

15. Vastus Externus. 

16. Long Head of the Biceps. 

17. Semi-Membranosus. 

18. Semi-Tend inosus. 

19. Tuber Ischii. 

20. Obturator Internus. 

21. Point of the Coccyx. 

22. Posterior Coccygeal Ligament. 

23 ) 

' V Greater Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

25. Posterior Superior Spinous Process of Ilium. 

26. Posterior Sacro-Iliac Ligaments. 



FIG. 212. 

A View of the Deep-seated Muscles on the 
Front of the Thigh. 

1. Os Ilium. 

2. Capsular Ligament of the Hip-Joint. 

3. Trochanter Major. 

4. Origin of the Pectineus Muscle. 

5. Symphysis Pubis. 

6. Origin of the Adductor Longus. 

7. Insertion of the Iliacus Internus and Psoas 
Magnus. 

8. Insertion of the Pectineus. 

9. Middle of the Adductor Longus. 

10. Tendinous Insertion of the Adductor Longus. 

11. Part of the Adductor Brevis seen between 
the Pectineus and Adductor Longus. 

12. Cut edge of the Vastus Internus. 

13. Aperture for the passage of Blood-Vessels. 

14. Opening for the Femoral Vessels. 

15. Portion of the Cruroeus. 

16. Another Opening for Vessels. 

17. Cut Tendon of the Quadriceps Femoris. 

18. Internal portion of the Knee-Joint. 

19. Tendon of the Patella. 
88. 



FIG. 213 



FIG. 214. 



FIG. 215. 






MUSCLES OF THE THIGH AND LEG. 



FIG. 213. 
A View of the Muscles on the 
Front of the Thigh. 

1. Crest of the Ilium. 

2. Its Anterior Superior Spinous 
Process. 

3. Gluteus Medius. 

4. Tensor Vaginae Femoris. 

5. Sarorius. 

6. Rectus Femoris. 

7. Vastus Externus. 

8. Vastus Internus. 

9. Patella. 

10. Iliacus Internus. 

11. Psoas Magnus. 

12. Pectineus. 

13. Adductor Longus. 

14. Adductor Magnus 

15. Gracilis. 



FIG. 214. 

A View of the Muscles on 

the Back of the Thigh. 

1. Gluteus Medius. 

2. Gluteus Magnus. 

3. Fascia Lata covering the 
Vastus Externus. 

4. Long Head of the Biceps. 

5. Short Head of the Biceps. 
G. Semi-Tendinosus. 

7.7. Semi-Memhranosus. 

8. Gracilis. 

9. Edge of the Adductor Mag- 
nus. 

10. Edge of the Sartorius. 

11. Popliteal Space. 

12. Gastrocnemius. 

Fase 89. 



FIG. 215. 

A View of the Muscles on the 
Front of the Leg. 

1. Tendon of the Quadriceps 
Femoris. 

2. Spine of the Tibia. 

3. Tibialis Anticus. 

4. Extensor Communis Digi- 
torum. 

5. Extensor Proprius Pollicis. 

6. Peroneus Tertius. 

7. Peroneus Longus. 

8. Peroneus Brevis. 
9.9. Borders of the Soleus. 

10. Portion of the Gastrocne- 
mius. 

11. Extensor Brevis Digitorum 



FIG 216. 



FIG. 217. 



FIG. 218. 



FIG. 219. 





MUSCLES OF THE LEG AND FOOT 



FIG. 216. 
A View of the Muscles on the Back op the 
Leg. 

1. Tendon of the Biceps. 

2. Inner Hamstring Tendons. 

3. Popliteal Space. 

4. Gastrocnemius. 

5. Soleus. 

6. Tendo-Achillis. 

7. Its Insertion on the Os Calcis. 

8. Tendons of the Peroneus Longus and Brevis. 

9. Tendons of the Tibialis Posticus and Flexor Longus 
Digitorum behind the Internal Malleolus. 



FIG. 218. 

j A View of the Muscles on the Sole of the 

\ Foot immediately under the Plantar 
> 

< Fascia. 

1. Os Calcis. 

j 2. Section of the Fascia Plantaris. 

| 3. Abductor Pollicis. 

i 4. Abductor Minimi Digiti. 

j 5. Flexor Brevis Digitorum. 

6. Tendon of the Flexor Longus Pollicis. 

< 7.7. Lumbricales. 



FIG. 217. 

A View of the Deep-seated Muscles on the 
Back of the Leg. 

1. Lower portion of the Femur. 

2. Ligament of Winslow. 

3. Tendon of the Semi-Membranosus. 

4. Internal Lateral Ligament of the Knee-Joint. 

5. External Lateral Ligament of the Knee. 

6. Popliteus Muscle. 

7. Flexor Longus Digitorum. 

8. Tibialis Posticus. 

9. Flexor Longus Pollicis. 

10. Peroneus Longus. 

11. Peroneus Brevis. 

12. Insertion of the Tondo-Achillis. 

13. Tendons of the Tibialis Posticus and Flexor Lon- 
gus Digitorum. 



A 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

I 7 
< 8 

j 9 

10. 

i 

e90. 



FIG. 219. 
View of the Deeper-seated Muscles on 
the Sole of the Foot. 

Section of the Plantar Fascia. 

Flexor Accessorius. 

Tendon of the Flexor Longus Digitorum. 

Tendon of the Flexor Longus Pollicis. 

Flexor Brevis Pollicis. 

Adductor Pollicis. 

Flexor Brevis Minimi Digiti. 

Transversalis Pedis. 

lnterossei. 

Course of the Peroneus Longus Tendon across 

ihe Foot. 



PART THIRD. 



ORGANS Or DIGESTION 

AND 

GENERATION: 

ONE HUNDRED AND NINETY-ONE FIGUEES. 



FIG. 220. 







FIG. 221. 









FIG. 220. 

View of the Organs of Di-j 
gestion, opened in nearly 
their whole length. a por-j 
tion of the oesophagus has; 
been removed on account ofj 
want of space in the flgure.) 
The Arrows indicate the; 
coukse of Substances along! 
the Canal. 



ORGANS OF DIGESTION. 

; 51. 



19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 

26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 



Portion of the Levator Ani 

Muscle. 

The Anus. 



Its lesser Curvature. 

Its greater Curvature. I 

The Cardiac Orifice. 52. 

The Pyloric Orifice. 

Upper portion of Duodenum. FIG. 221. 

25. The remainder of the Duo-; A View of the Cavity of the 



1. The Upper Lip, turned off 
the Mouth. 30. 

2. Its Fraenum. 31. 

3. The Lower Lip, turned down. 

4. Its Fraenum. 32. 
5.5. Inside of the Cheeks, covered 

by the lining Membrane of 33. 
the Mouth. 

6. Points to the opening of the 34. 
Duct of Steno. 

7. Roof of the Mouth. '35. 

8. Lateral Half Arches. I 36. 

9. Points to the Tonsils. j 37. 

10. Velum Pendulum Palati. \ 

11. Surface of the Tongue. I 38. 

12. Papillae near its point. \ 39. 

13. A portion of the Trachea. i 40. 

14. The Oesophagus. \ 42. 

15. Its internal surface. \ 43. 

16. Inside of the Stomach. \ 45. 

17. Its greater extremity or great \ 46 
Cul-de-Sac. 48 

18. Its lesser extremity or smaller \ 49 



C ul -de-Sac. 



50 



denum. 

Its Valvulae Conniventes. 

The Gall Bladder. 

The Cystic Duct. 

Division of Hepatic Ducts 

in the Liver. 

Hepatic Duct. 

Ductus Communis Chole- 

dochus. 

Its opening into the Duode- 
num. 

Ductus Wirsungii, or Pan 

creatic Duct. 

Its opening into the Duode- 
num. 

Upper part of Jejunum. 

The Ileum. 

Some of the Valvulae Conni-; 

ventes. \ 

Lower extremity of the Ileum .5 

Ileo -Colic Valve. 
41. Ccecum, or Caput Coli. 

Appendicula Vermiformis. 
44. Ascending Colon. 

Transverse Colon. 
.47. Descending Colon. 

Sigmoid Flexure of the Colon J 

Upper portion of the Rectum. \ 
. Its lower Extremity. 
Faee 93. 



Mouth, as shown by dividing 
the Angles of the Mouth 
and turning off the llps. 

1. The Upper Lip, turned up. 

2. Its Fraenum. 

3. The Lower Lip, turned down. 

4. Its Fraenum. 

5. Internal Surface of the Cheeks. 

6. Opening of Duct of Steno. 

7. Roof of the Mouth. 

8. The anterior portion of the Late- 
ral Half Arches. 

9. The posterior portion of the La- 
teral Half Arches. 

10. The Velum Pendulum Palati. 
\\\. The Tonsils. 
12. The Tongue. 



FIG. 222. 
A View of the Inner Side of 
the Lips. The Mucous Mem- 
brane HAS BEEN REMOVED SO 

as to show the labial and 
Buccal Glands. 

1.1. Ducts of Steno: a Bristle 
has been introduced to show 
the opening into the Mouth. 

2.2. The Labial Glands. 



FIG. 223. 



FIG. 225. 




THE T E E T ti 



FIG. 223. 
A side View of the Upper and Lower Jaw, 

SHOWING THE TEETH IN THEIR SOCKETS. The 

outer Plate of the Alveolar Processes 
has been taken off so as to expose the 
Fangs of the Teeth and show the kind of 
Articulation and relative Position of 

EACH. 

1. First Incisores of the Upper Jaw. 

2. First Incisores of the Lower Jaw. 



FIG. 226. 

| A View of the Under Side of the Upper Jaw, 
showing the cutting edges and grinding 
Surfaces of the Teeth of this Jaw. 

1.1. The two Central Incisores. 

2.2. The two Lateral Incisores. 

3.3. The two Cuspidati. 

i 4.4. The four Bicuspidati. 

< 5 5. The six Molares or Grinders. 



FIG. 224. 
A View of the Under Side of the Upper Jaw 

without the Teeth. 
1.1. The outer Plate of the Alveolar Process. 
The inner Plate. 

The three double Sockets for the Molares, the 

first two of which have three Sockets and the 

last only two. 

The ten single Sockets a r e seen in advance of 

these on each side of the Middle Line. They are 

for the Incisores, the Cuspidati and the Bicuspidati. 



2.2 
3.3 



FIG. 225. 
A View of the Upper Part of the Lower Jaw, 
showing the Sockets of the Teeth. 

1. The Sockets of the ten single-fanged Teeth. 

2. The Sockets of the three double-fanged Teeth. 

Fas> 



FIG. 227. 

A View, from above and behind, of the Lower 
Jaw with a full Set of Teeth, showing the 
cutting Edges and grinding Surfaces of the 
Teeth in that Jaw, with the Coronoid and 
Condyloid Processes. 

1.1. The two Central Incisores. 

2.2. The two Lateral Incisores. 

3.3. The two Cuspidati. 

4.4. The four Bicuspidati. 

\ 5.5. The six Molares or Grinders. 

I 6. Coronoid Process. 

7. Condyloid Process. 

\ 8. Base of Jaw. 

3 94. 



FIGS. 228 to 235. 




FIGS. 236 to 243. 




FIGS. 244 to 251. 




THE TEE TH. 



FIGS. 228 to 235. j 

A View of the Eight Teeth of one side of 
the Upper Jaw, taken from their Sockets 
bo as to show the whole tooth j seen j 
from the outside. 

1.1. The two Incisores. 
2. The Cuspidatus, showing- how much it is 
longer than the others. 

3.3. The two Bicuspidati. 

4.4. The first two Molares, having- three Fangs. 
5. The third Molar or Dens Sapientiae, having 

also three Fan^s. 



Figures in this Cut have the same Refer- 
ences AS IN THE PRECEDING CUT. 



FIGS. 236 to 243. 

The same View of the Teeth of the Lower 
Jaw: the five single ones are similar to 
those in the Upper Jaw, but the Grinders i 
in this Jaw have only two Fangs. The j 

Page 



FIGS. 244 to 251. 

A Side View of the Teeth of one side of the 
Upper Jaw, showing how the Incisores and 
cuspidati in this vlew differ from the 
former View more than the Bicuspidati 
or Molares. 

1.1. The two Incisores, showing the hollowed 
inner Surface of the Body of these Teeth. 
2. The Cuspidatus, showing the same. 

3.3. The Bicuspidati, showing the two points on 
the basis of each. The first of them has a 
forked Fang. 

4.5. The Molares. 

95 



FIGS. 252 lo 250. 




FIGS. 260 to 265. 





FIGS. 266 and 267. 





THE TEETH. 



FIGS. 252 to 259. > 

A side View of the Teeth of one side of the ! 
Lower Jaw, showing that the Incisores 



and cuspidati in this vlew differ from the 
View in Fig. 236, more than the Bicuspi- 
dati or Grinders. 

1.1. The two Incisores. 
2. The Cuspidatus, showing how much longer 
it is than the others. 
3.3. The two Bicuspidati. 

4.5. The three Molares. < 

Page 



FIGS. 260 to 265. 

A View of the Cavities of the Teeth, as 
seen in Longitudinal Sections of the In- 
cisores, Cuspidatus, Bicuspidati and Mo- 
lares. 



FIGS. 266 and 267. 

A View of an Incisor and of a Molar Tooth, 
given by a Longitudinal Section, and show- 
ing that the Enamel is striated and that 
the Strije are all turned to the Centre. 
The internal Structure is also seen. 

1. The Enamel. 

2. The Ivory. 

3. The Cavitas Pulpi. 

91 



FIG. i«8. 



FIG. 269. 




FIG. 270. 





FIG. 271. 




FIG. 272. 




STRUCTURE OF THE TEETH 



FIG. 268. 
A Vertical Section of an Adult Bicuspid, 

CUT FROM WITHOUT INWARDS; MAGNIFIED FOUR 
TIMES. 

1.1. The Cortical Substance which surrounds the 
Root up to the commencement of the Enamel. 

2.2. The Ivory of the Tooth, in which are seen 
the greater Parallel Curvatures, as well as 
the position of the Main Tubes. 

3. Apex of the Tooth, where the Tubes are al- 
most perpendicular. 
4.4. The Enamel. 

5. The Cavity of the Pulp, in which are seen, 
by means of the Glass, the Openings of the 
Tubes of the Dental Bone. 



FIG. 269. 

A Vertical Section of an imperfectly de- 
veloped Incisor, taken from the Follicle 
in which it was enclosed. this section 
is meant to show the Position of the 
Enamel Fibres; and also that a part of 
the appearances which are seen in this 
substance under a less magnifying power, 
originate in parallel curvatures of the 
Fibres. 

1.1. The Enamel. 

2.2. The Dental Bone, or Ivory. 

3.3. The minute Indentations and Points on the 
Surface of the Ivory, on which the Enamel 
Fibres rest. 



4.4. Brown Parallel Fibres. 
5. Parallel Flexions of the Fibres of the Dental 
Bone in these Stripes. 



FIG. 270. 

a portion of the surface of the enamel on 
which the Hexagonal Terminations of 
the Fibres are shown; highly magnified. 

1.2.3. Are more strongly marked dark crooked 
Crevices, running between the rows of the 
Hexagonal Fibres. 



FIG. 271. 

The Fibres of the Enamel viewed sideways 
under a magnifying power of 350 times. 

1.1. The Enamel Fibres. 

2.2. The Transverse Stripes upon them. 



FIG. 272. 

A small Portion op Fig. 268 covered with 
Turpentine Varnish, viewed under a mag- 
nifying POWER OF 350 TIMES. 

1.2.3. Are the Tubes containing a powdery lumpy 
substance. They are regular, and closely 
undulating; but the Branches do not appear, 
because they are penetrated by the Varnish. 



Page 97. 



FIG. 273. 



FIG. 274. 





FIG. 277. 





FIG. 276. 




STRUCTURE OF THE TEETH. 



FIG. 273. 
A View of the most Interior Portion opihe 
Main Tubes of the Dental Bone in an 
Incisor of a Child two years old, close 
to their commencement in the Cavitas 
Pulpi, in order to show their first division. 



FIG. 274. 

A View of the External Portion of the 
Tubes of the same Tooth, exhibiting their 
more minute ramifications, which, for the 
most part, turn towards the crown. 



FIG. 276. 

A View of the Position of the same Main 
Tubes, in a Transverse Section near the 
Root of a Bicuspid, magnified five diam's. 
The dark patches in this Figure mark 
the places in which the bone was espe- 
CIALLY White, and less Transparent than 

IN THE CLEARER INTERMEDIATE TRACTS. 



FIG. 277. 

A Front View of the Upper Surface of the 
Tongue, as well as of the Palatine Arch. 



1.1. 

2. 
3.3. 



FIG. 275. 

A View of a small Portion of a Transverse 
Section of the Crown of the Tooth, seen 
in Fig. 263, viewed under a magnifying 
power of 350 TIMES. 

1.2.3. Are the round openings of the Tubes, with 
Parieth-s of a peculiar Substance. 

4.5.6. Are the Tubes cut more obliquely, in con- 
sequence of their more External Position. 

Page 



9. 
10, 

98. 



The Posterior Lateral Half Arches, with the 
PalatoPharingeal Muscles, as also the Tonsils. 
The Epiglottis Cartilage, seen from before. 
The Ligament and Mucous Membrane, ex- 
tending from the Root of the Tongue to the 
Base of the Epiglottis Cartilage. 
One of the Pouches on the side of the Poste- 
rior Fraenum, in which food sometimes lodges. 
The Foramen Ccecum, or central one of the 
Papillae Maximse. 
Papillae Conicae, or Maximae. 
The white point at the end of the line, and 
all like it, are the Papillae Fungiformes. 
The Side of the Tongue, and the Rugae 
Transversae of Albinus. 
The Papillae Filiformes. 
Point of the Tongue. 



FIG. 278 



FIG. 279. 





FIG. 280. 



FIG. 281. 





THE MOUTH. 



FIG. 278. 



A View of the Lower Jaw, with the Tongue 
drawn upwards, so as to show its under 
Surface in situ. 

1.7 The Posterior Superior Surface of the Tongue, 
2. 5 with the Papillae Maximae. 

3. The Opening of the Duct of the Sub-Maxillary 
Gland, or the Duct of Wharton. 

4. The Sub-Lingual Gland, seen under the Mu- 
cous Membrane of the Mouth. 

5. The Lower Jaw. 



FIG. 280. 
A View of the Under Surface of the Tongue, 
with the Muscles connected with it. 

1.1. The Inferior Surface of the Tongue. 
2. The Os Hyoides. 

3.3. Origin of Hyo-Glossus Muscle. 

4.4. The Genio-Hyo-Glossus of each side dis- 
sected off and turned to one side. 

5.5. The White Central Vertical Septum of the 
Tonsrue. 



FIG. 279. 
A View of the Dorsum of the Tongue, from 

WHICH, BY MACERATION, THE PeRIGLOTTIS 

has been removed, and turned back on the 
Right Side. 



10 
11 



The Sides of the Tongue. 
Its Base. 
Its Tip or Point. 

The denuded portion of the Tongue, showing 
the Papillae deprived of the Epidermis or 
Periglottis. 

The Under Surface of the detached Epidermis, 
showing its depressions. 
Foramen C cecum. 
The Truncated Papillae near it. 
The other Papillae, denudedof the Epidermis. 
Impression of the Periglottis around the de- 
nuded Papillae. 

Fraenum to the Epiglottis Cartilage. 
12. Depressions on the Periglottis, which fits 
the Elevations on the Tongue. 



FIG. 281. 
A View of the Muscles of the Tongue, as 
| seen on its Lower Surface. 
1. Body of the Os Hyoides. 
2.2. Styloid Processes of the Temporal Bones. 

3. Horizontal Portion of the Stylo-Glossus 
Muscle. 

4. The Hyo-Glossus. 

5. The Genio-Hyo-Glossus held up by a hook 
near its origin. 

6. Section of the Glossal Portion of the same 
Muscle. 

7. Its Insertion into the Os Hyoides. 

8. The Middle Fissure and Fatty Matter be- 
tween the Muscles of each side. 

9. The Lingualis Muscle. 

10. The Transversales Linguae at the Point of 
the Tono-ue. 



Fage 90. 



fmopv UNIVERSITY 



-mim Mrrnir^Ai I iddadv 



FIG. 282. 



FIG. 283. 





FIG. 284 



FIG. 285. 




THE MOUTH, 



FIG. 282. i 

A View of a Section of the Anterior Por- { 
tion of the Tongue, as seen from behind. 

1. The Upper Surface. 

2.2. The Tongue uncovered by the Epidermis, 
which is slightly drawn forward. 

3.3. The Verticales Linguae Muscle. 
4. The Middle Septum. 

5.5. The Transversales Linguae. 

6. The Ranine Arteries. 

7. The Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerves. 

8. The Genio-Hyo-Glossus Muscle of each 
side. 



9. Stylo-Glossus Muscle. 

10. Stylo-Hyoid Muscle. 

11. Stylo-Pharyngeus Muscle. 

12. Os Hyoides. 

13. Thyreo-Hyoid Ligament. 

14. Thyroid Cartilage. 

15. Thyro-Hyoideus Muscle. 

16. Cricoid Cartilage. 

17. Crico-Thyroid Ligament. 

18. Trachea. 

19. Oesophagus. 



FIG. 283. 
A Lateral View of the Styloid Muscles, 

AND ALSO OF THOSE OF THE TONGUE. 

1. Mastoid Portion of Temporal Bone. 
2.2. Right Half of the Lower Jaw Bone. 

3. Upper Surface of the Tongue. 

4. Genio-Hyoideus Muscle. 

5. Genio-Hyo-Glossus Muscle. 

' £ Hyo-Glossus Muscle. 

8. Anterior Fibres of the Lingualis issuing 
from between Hyo-Glossus and Genio-Hyo- 
Glossus. 



FIG. 284. 
A Vertical Section of one of the Gusta- 
tory Papillae of the largest class, show- 
ing its conical form, its sides, and the 
Fissure between the different Papillje. 
The length of some of the divided Blood- 
vessels, a Transverse Section of others, 
and the Vessels which rise up from the 
surface like Loops or Meshes, are also 
shown; highly magnified. 



FIG. 285. 
A View of a Papilla of the smallest class, 
magnified 25 diameters. the loops of 
Blood-Vessels are here shown, each Loop 
containing usually only one vessel. 

100. 



FIG. 287 



FIG. 288. 




MOUTH AND PHARYNX. 



FIG. 286. 
A View op the Roof of the Mouth and of 
the Soft Palate. 

1. The Roof of the Mouth, bounded by the Supe- 
rior Dental Arch. 

2. The Soft Palate. 

3. The Velum Pendulum Palati. 

4. The Ridges seen on the Roof of the Mouth. 

5. The Tubercle behind the Incisor Teeth. 

6. The Middle Line of the Hard Palate. 

7. Orifices of some of the Mucous Follicles. 

8. The Tonsil. 



9. The Pharynx. 



FIG. 287. 
A Front View of the Muscles of the Palate 

AND OF THE POSTERIOR PORTION OF THE PhA- 

rynx, as given by a vertical section of the 
Sphenoidal Sinuses — of the space between 
the last Molar Teeth, and of the Tongue, 
Os Hyoides and Thyroid Cartilages. 

1. Sphenoidal Sinuses. 

2.2. Petrous portions of the Temporal Bones. 

3. Back part of Antrum Highmorianum. 

4. Middle and Inferior Spongy Bones. 

5. Shows the upper portion of the Palatine 
Walls, after the removal of 3 and 4. 

6. The Circumflexus Palati Muscle. 

7. Constrictor Pharyngis Superior. 

8. Part of its Origin. 

9. Levator Palati. 

10. Anterior face of the posterior extremity of 
the middle Suture of the Palate Bones ; above 
is the Septum Narium. 

11. Palatine portion of Levator Palati. 

12. Section of the Buccinator Muscle. 

13. Anterior Half Arch. 

14. Last Molar Tooth of Upper Jaw. 

15. Constrictor Isthmi Faucium. 

16. Last Molar of Lower Jaw. 

17. Portion of Constrictor Pharyngis Superior, 
where the Tonsil rests. 

18. Front portion of the section of the Tongue. 

19. Constrictor Pharyngis Superior. 
20.23.24. Constrictor Pharyngis Medius. 



21. Mylo-Hyoideus Muscle. 

22. Attachment of Hyo- Glossus. 

25. Stylo-Pharyngeus, and Thyreo-Hyoid Liga- 
ment. 

26. Thyroid Cartilage. 

27. Constrictor Pharyngis Inferior Muscle. 



10, 



FIG. 288. 
Posterior View of the Muscles of the 
Soft Palate, as shown by a section of the 
Cranium through the Glenoid Cavities. 
Basilar portion of the Sphenoid Bone. 
Condyles of Lower Jaw. 
Hard Palate. 

Levator Palati, on one side entire, on the 
other partially removed. 
Eustachian Tubes. 
External Pterygoid Muscle. 
Circumflexus Palati. 
Azygos Uvulae. 

Mylar Attachment of Constrictor Pharyngis 
Superior. 
Palato-Pharyngeus. 



FIG. 289. 
A View of the Muscles of the Soft Palate, 

AS SEEN FROM BELOW AND IN FRONT. 

1. The Roof of the Mouth or Hard Palate, sawed 
across at the second Molar Tooth. 

2. Origin of the Levator Palati Muscle. 

3. Its expansion near its insertion. 

4. Origin of the Circumflexus or Tensor Palati. 

5. The Pterygo- Maxillary Ligament, which 
converts the notch through which this Mus- 
cle plays into a Foramen. 

6.6. Palatine Aponeurosis. 

7. A section of the Constrictor Pharyngis Su- 
perior Muscle. 

8. Extremity of Azygos Uvulae Muscle. 

9. Section of the Eustachian Tube. 



FIG. 290. 
A Lobule of the Parotid Gland of an In- 
fant, INJECTED WITH MERCURY AND MAGNI- 
FIED FIFTY DIAMETERS. 



Fage 101. 



FIG. 291. 




FIG. 292 



FIG. 293. 





MOUTH AND PHARYNX, 



FIG. 291. 
A View of the Salivary 
Glands in situ. 

1. The Parotid Gland in situ, and ex- 
tending from the Zygoma above 
to the Angle of the Jaw below. 

2. The Duct of Steno. 

3. The Sub-Maxillary Gland. 

4. Its Duct. 

5. Sub-Lingual Gland. 



FIG. 292. 
A Posterior View of the In- 
ternal Surface of the Pha- 
rynx. A vertical cut has 

BEEN MADE, AND THE PARTS 
TURNED OFF ON EACH SIDE. 

1. Basilar portion of Sphenoid Bone. 

2. Section of Temporal Bones. 

3. Orbitar Plate of Os Frontis. 

4. Condyle of Lower Jaw. 

5. Constrictor Pharyngis Superior. 

6. The Walls of the Pharynx turn- 
ed to each side by a section 
through their origin. 

7. Cut portion of the Sphenoidal 
attachment of the Pharynx. 

8. Points to the Eustachian Tube. 

9. Circumflexus Palati. On the 



right side it is in situ ; on the 
left it is partially turned down- 
wards. 

Azygos Uvulae Muscle. 
Fibres of the Middle Con- 
strictor of the Pharynx. 
Fibres of the Inferior 



Con- 
strictor. 

Portion of Superior Constrictor. 
Palato-Pharyngeus. 
Its upper portion. 
Its insertion into Thyroid Car- 
tilage. 

The Palato-Pharyngeus of the 
opposite side. 

Origin of Palato-Pharyngeus. 
Insertion of Stylo-Pharyngeus. 
Crico-Arytenoideus-Posticus. 
Internal Muscular Coat of the 
Oesophagus. 

FIG. 293. 
Posterior View of the 
Muscles of the external 
portion of the Pharynx, 
as shown by removing the 
Back of the Head and Tho- 
rax. ' 
Basilar portion of the Sphenoid 
Bone. 

Page 102. 



2. Inferior anterior portion of the 
Os Frontis, and Crista Galli 
of the Ethmoid. 

3. Petrous portion of Temporal 
Bones. 

4. Levator Palati Muscle. 

5. Constrictor Pharyngis Superior. 

6. Constrictor Pharyngis Medius. 

7. Constrictor Pharyngis Inferior. 

8. Upper part of posterior Face of 
the Lining Membrane of Pha- 
rynx, after removing the Mus- 
cle. 

9. Longitudinal Muscular Fibres 
of the GEsophagus. 

10. Internal Pterygoid Muscle. 

11. Stylo-Pharyngeus. 

12. Myloid attachment of the Con- 
strictor Pharyngis Superior. 

13. Stylo-Hyoideus. 

14. Temporal Belly of Digastricus. 

15. Platysma Myodes Muscle. 

16. Sterno-CIeido- Mastoideus. 

17. Omo-Hyoideus. 

18. Sterno-Thyroid Muscle. 

19. Sterno-Hyoid. 

20. Section of Sterno-Thyroideus. 

21. Section of the Trapezius Muscle. 



FIG. 294. 



FIG. 295. 





FIG. 296. 




THE MOUTH AND CESOP HAG-US. 



FIG. 294. 

A View of the Muscles of the Tongue, Pa- 
late, Larynx, and Pharynx — as well as 
the position of the upper portion of the 
(Esophagus, as shown by a Vertical Sec- 
tion of the Head. 

1.1. The Vertical Section of the Head. 

2. Points to the Spinal Canal. 

3. Section of the Hard Palate. 

4. Inferior Spongy Bone. 

5. Middle Spongy Bone. 

6. Orifice of the Right Nostril. 

7. Section of Inferior Maxilla. 

8. Section of Os Hyoides. 

9. Section of the Epiglottis. 

10. Section of the Cricoid Cartilage. 

11. The Trachea covered by its Lining Membrane. 

12. Section of Sternum. 

13. Inside of the upper portion of the Thorax 

14. Genio-Hyo-Glossus Muscle. 

15. Its origin. 

16.17. The fan-like Expansion of the Fibres of 
this Muscle. 

18. Superficialis Linguae Muscle. 

19. Verticales Linguae Muscle. 

20. Genio-Hyoideus Muscle. 

21. Mylo-Hyoideus Muscle. 

22. Anterior Belly of Digastricus. 

23. Section of Platysma Myodes. 

24. Levator Menti. 

25. Orbicularis Oris. 

26. Orifice of Eustachian Tube. 

27. Levator Palati. 

28. Internal Pterygoid. 

29. Section of Velum Pendulum Palati, and 
Azygos Uvulae Muscle. 



30 
31 
32 
33 
34 



Stylo-Pharyngeus. 
Constrictor Pharyngis Superior. 
Constrictor Pharyngis Medius. 
Insertion Stylo-Pharyngeus. 
Constrictor Pharyngis Inferior. 
35.36.37. Muscular Coat of Oesophagus 

38. Thyreo-Arytenoid Muscle and Ligaments; 
and above is the Ventricle of Galen. 

39. Section of Arytenoid Cartilao-e. 

40. Border of Sterno-Hyoideus. 



FIG. 295. 

A View of a portion of the OEsophagus of 
an Adult, seen on its outer side. 

1.1. External or Longitudinal Muscular Fibres. 

2.2. Internal or Circular Fibres, as shown after 
the removal of the Longitudinal ones. 

3.3. The cut edges of the Longitudinal Fibres, 
from which a portion has been removed, so 
as to show the Circular ones. 



FIG. 296. 
A Longitudinal Section of the Oesophagus, 

NEAR THE PHARYNX, SEEN ON ITS INSIDE. 

1.1. Superior part near the Pharynx. 

2.2. Longitudinal folds of its Mucous Membrane. 

3.3. Prominences formed by its Muciparous 
Glands. 

4.4. Capillary Blood- Vessels. 

5. Shows the Muscular Coat after the Mucous 
Coat has been turned off. 



Page 103. 



FIG. 297. 





ABDOMINAL VISCEKA. 



FIG. 297. 
A View or the External Parietes of the 
Abdomen, with the position of the Lines; 
drawn to mark off its regions. 

1.1. A line drawn from the highest point of one 
Ilinrn to the same point of the opposite one. 

2.2. A line drawn from the Anterior Superior 
Spinous Process to the Cartilages of the Ribs. 

3.3. A similar one for the opposite side. 

4.4. A line drawn perpendicularly to these, and 
touching the most prominent part of the 
Costal Cartilages, thus forming nine regions. 

5.5. The Right and Left Hypochondriac Regions. 

6. The Epigastric Region. 

7. The Umbilical Region. 

8.8. The Right and Left Lumbar Regions. 

9. The Hypogastric Region. 
10.10. The Right and Left Iliac Regions. 
11. The lower part of the Hypogastric, some- 
times called Pubic. 



FIG. 298. 

A View of the Reflexions of the Perito- 
neum, as given by a Vertical Section of 
the Body of a Man. 

1. A section of the Spinal Column and Canal. 

2. A section of the Sacrum. 

3. A section of the Sternum, &c. 

4. The Umbilicus. 

5. A section of the Linea Alba and Abdominal 
Muscles. 

6. The Mons Veneris. 

7. Section of the Pubes. 

8. The Penis divided at the Corpora Cavernosa. 

9. A section of the Scrotum. 

10. The Superior Right Half of the Diaphragm. 

11. A section of the Liver. 

12. A section of the Stomach, showing its cavity. 



13 
14 

15 

1G 
17 



19, 
20, 

21, 

22 

> 23 

24 

25 

26 

27 



; si 

j 32 

33 

<34 

35. 



36. 



A section of the Transverse Colon. 

A section of the Pancreas. 

A section of the Bladder, deprived of the 

Peritoneum. 

The Rectum, cut off, tied and turned back on 

the promontory of the Sacrum. 

The Peritoneum covering the anterior Parie- 
tes of the Abdomen. 

The Peritoneum on the inferior under side 

of the Diaphragm. 

The Peritoneum on the Convex side of the 

Diaphragm. 

Reflection of Peritoneum from Diaphragm to 

Liver. 

The Peritoneum on Front of Liver. 

The same, on its under surface. 

The Hepato-Gastric Omentum. 

A large pin passed through the Foramen of 

Winslow into the Cavity behind the Omentum. 

The anterior Face of the Hepato-Gastric 

Omentum, passing in front of the Stomach. 

The same Membrane leaving the Stomach to 

make the anterior of the four layers of the 

Great Omentum. 
28. The junction of the Peritoneum from the 

front and back part of the Stomach, as they 

turn to go up to the Colon. 

The Gastro-Colic, or Greater Omentum. 

The separation of its Layers, so as to cover 

the Colon. 

The posterior La5^er passing over the. Tpjunum. 

The Peritoneum in front of the right Kidney. 

The Jejunum cut off and tied. 
34. The Mesentery cut off from the small 

Intestines. 

The Peritoneum reflected from the posterior 

Parietes of the Bladder to the anterior of the 

Rectum. 

The Cul-de-Sac between the Bladder and 

Rectum. 



FW 104. 



FIG. 299. 



FIG. 300. 




THE VISCERA. 



FIG. 299. 
A View of the Viscera of the Chest and 
Abdomen, in their natural position, as 
given by the removal of the anterior 
parietes of each cavity. 

1.2. The Ribs forming the side of the Chest. 

3. Fatty tissue in the anterior Mediastinum. 

4.4. The section of the Pleura of each side. 

5. The Pericardium enclosing the Heart. 

6. Superior Lobe of the right Lung. 

7. Inferior Lobe of the right Lung. 

8. The Fissure which separates them. 

9. Upper Lobe of the left Lung. 

10. Lower Lobe of the left Lung. 

11. Fissure between them. 

12. A transverse section of the Diaphragm 

13. Superior Face of the right Lobe of the Liver. 

14. Superior Face of the left Lobe of the Liver. 

15. Lower end of the Gall Bladder. 

16. Inferior and anterior Edge of the Liver. 

17. Round Ligament of the Liver. 

18. Suspensory Ligament of the Liver. 

19. Anterior Face of the Stomach. 

20. Its greater Extremity. 

21. Its lesser Extremity. 

22. Its lesser Curvature. 

23. Its greater Curvature. 

24. The Pylorus. 

25. The Duodenum. 

26. A part of the Gastro-Hepatic Omentum. 

27.27. The Gastro-Colic Omentum. 

28.28. Convolutions of the Small Intestines, seen 
through this Omentum. 

Page 



29. The Spleen. 

30.30. The Large Intestines. 

31.31. Parietes of the Abdomen turned down. 



FIG. 300. 

A View of the same Viscera, after the re- 
moval of the Fat in the Chest and the 
Omentum Majus of the Abdomen. The 
Liver also has been turned back to show 
its under surface and the lesser omen- 
TUM. 

1. The great Blood-Vessels of the Heart. 

2. The Lungs of each side. 

3. The Heart. 

4. The Diaphragm. 

5. Under surface of the Liver. 

6. The Gall Bladder. 

7. Union of the Cystic and Hepatic Ducts to 
form the Ductus Choledochus. 

8. Anterior Face of the Stomach. 

9. The Gastro-Hepatic, or lesser Omentum. A 
female Catheter has been passed through the 
Foramen of Winslow, and is seen through 
the Omentum. 

10. Gastro-Colic, or greater Omentum, cut off, so 
as to show the small Intestines. 

11. The Transverse Colon, pushed slightly 
downwards. 

12. Its ascending portion, also pushed down. 

13. Small Intestines. 

14. The Sigmoid Flexure. 

15. Append icula Vermiformis. 

105. 



FIG. 301. 



FIG. 302. 





THE VISCERA. 



FIG. 301. 

A View of the Heart and Intestines in situ. 
the Lungs, Trachea, and Omentum Majus, 
having been removed, and the Colon turn- 
ed UPWARDS. 

1.2. The Ribs on one side of the Chest. 

3. The right Ventricle of the Heart. 
a 4. The right Auricle of the Heart. 

5. The left Ventricle. 

6. The left Auricle. 

7. The Descending Vena Cava. 

8.9. Right Subclavian and Vena Innominata. 

10. Arch of the Aorta. 

11. Arteria Innominata. 

12. Left Primitive Carotid Artery. 

13. Left Subclavian Artery. 

14. Lower portion of the Thyroid Gland. 
15.15. The Jejunum. 

16.17. The Ileum. 

18. One of the Longitudinal Bands of the Colon. 

19. The Coecum. 

20. Appendicula Vermiformis. 

21. Ascending Colon. 

22. Left end of the transverse Colon. 

23. Descending Colon. 

24. Sigmoid Flexure. 

25. Transverse Mesocolon. 

26. Right Lumbar portion of Mesocolon. 

Page 



j 27. Left Lumbar portion of Mesocolon. 
28.28. Parietes of the Abdomen turned down. 



FIG. 302. 
A View of the Stomach and Oesophagus, in 

THEIR NATURAL POSITION. The THORACIC 

Viscera — nearly all the Diaphragm and 
the Intestines have been removed — the 
Peritoneum has been detached from the 
Kidneys, and the Duodenum is left. 

1. Upper portion of the Oesophagus. 

2. Arch of the Aorta. 

3. Lower portion of the OEsophagus. 

4. Vertebral Column. 

5. Vena Cava Ascendens. 

6. The Pancreas. 

7. The cut edge of the Diaphragm. 

8. Great Cul -de-Sac of the Stomach. 

9. Cardiac orifice of the Stomach. 

10. Pyloric orifice of the Stomach. 

11. The Spleen. 

12. The Peritoneal Coat of the Stomach par- 
tially turned off. 

13. The right Kidney. 

14. Lower curvature of the Duodenum. 
1 5. Ascending Vena Cava. 

16. Abdominal Aorta. 

17. A section of the Rectum. 

106. 



FIG. 303. 




FIG. 304. 



FIG. 305. 





THE STOMACH, 



FIG. 303. 
A Front View op the Stomach, distended by 

FLATUS, WITH THE PERITONEAL COAT TURNED 
OFF. 

1. Anterior Face of the Oesophagus. 

2. The Cul-de-Sac, or greater Extremity. 

3. The lesser or Pyloric Extremity. 

4. The Duodenum. i 
5.5. A portion of the Peritoneal Coat turned back. 

6. A portion of the Longitudinal Fibres of the 
Muscular Coat. ( 

7. The Circular Fibres of the Muscular Coat. } 

8. The Oblique Muscular Fibres, or Muscle of 
Gavard. \ 

9. A portion of the Muscular Coat of the Duo- I 
denum, where its Peritoneal Coat has been 
removed. > 



3. Its greater Extremity, or Cul-de-Sac. 

4. The greater Curvature. 

5. Line of attachment of the Omentum Majus. 

6. The Muscular Coat. 

7. The anterior cut Edge of the Mucous Coat. 

8. The Rugae of the Mucous Coat. 

9. The lesser Curvature. 

10. The beginning of the Duodenum. 

11. Pyloric Orifice, or Valve. 

12. The first turn of the Duodenum downwards. 



FIG. 304. 
A View of the Interior of the Stomach, as 
given by the removal of its anterioil 
Parietes. 

1. Oesophagus. 

2. Cardiac Orifice of the Stomach. 



FIG. 305. 
A View of the interior of the Stomach and 
Duodenum in situ, the inferior portion of 
each having been removed. 

1.1. The under side of the Liver. 

2. The Gall Bladder. 

3.3. The lesser Curvature and anterior Faces, as 
seen from below. 

4. The Rugae, about the Cardiac Orifice. 

5. The Pyloric Orifice. 

6. The Rugae, and thickness of this Orifice. 
7.7. The Duodenum. 

8. Lower End of the Right Kidney. 



Page 107. 



K1G. 3Uti. 



FIG. 307. 





FIG. 308. 





FIG. 309. 





FIG. 311. 



FIG. 312. 








'vj^i 



-3 




FIG. 306. 

a portion op the stomach and 
Duodenum laid open to show 
their interior. 

1.1. The Right or Pyloiic Extre- 
mity of the Stomach. 

2.2. The Folds and Mucous Fol- 
licles of the Mucous Coat 
of the Stomach. 

3. Points into the Pylorus. 

4. The thickness of the Pylorus. 
5.5. The Rugae of the Internal 

Coat of the Duodenum. 
6. The Opening of the Ductus 
Communis Choledochus into 
the Duodenum. 



THE STOMACH. 

FIG. 308. 
A Portion of the Mucous 
Membuane of the Sto- 
mach, showing the En- 
trances to the Secreting 
Tubes, in the Cells upon 
its Surface. 



LINGER, MAGNIFIED ABOUT 45 



< DIAMETERS. 

1. Veins filled with white in- 
jection. 
; 2. Arteries injected with red. 



FIG. 307. 
A Section of the Coats of 
the Stomach near the Py- \ 

LORUS, SHOWING THE GaS- 

tric Glands. 

1. Magnified three times. 

2. Magnified twenty times. \ 



FIG. 309. 

(l.)The apex of an Intestinal 
Villus from the Duodenum 
of the Human Female. 

(2.) A Mesh of the Vascular Net 
work. 

1. The Net-work. 

2. Delicate Vesicular Tissue 
magnified nearly 45 Diam's. 



FIG. 311. 

I The Glands in the Coats of 
the Stomach, magnified 45 
; diameters. 

! 1. A Gastric Gland, from the 
j middle of the Stomach. 
[ 2. Another, of more complex 
J structure, and appearing to 
contain Mucus — from the 
neighbourhood of the Pylorus. 



FIG. 310. FIG. 312. 

The Vessels of an Intestinal j One of the Intestinal Villi, 
Villus of a Hare, from a with the commencement of 
dry preparation by dol- , a lacteal. magnified. 

Page 108. 



FIG. 313. 



FIG. 314. 





FIG. 315. 




FIG. 317. 




FIG. 316. 




m 



FIG. 318. 



FIG. 319. 





THE INTESTINAL CANAL 



FIG. 313. 
A View of the muscular Coat 
of the Ileum. 

1.1. The Peritoneal Coat. 
2. A portion of this Coat turn- 
ed off and showing a por- 
tion of the Longitudinal Fi- 
bres of the Muscular Coat 
adherent to it. 
3.4.5. The Circular Muscular Fi- 
bres in different parts of: 
the Intestine. 



FIG. 314. 

A PORTION OF THE JEJUNUM, IN- 
VERTED, DISTENDED AND DRIED. 

1. The Sub-Mucous Cellular 
Tissue distended by the in- 
flation. 

2. The Cellular Tissue of the 
Mesentery close to the In- 
testine. 

3.3. The Peritoneal Coat. 

4. The Muscular Coat. 

5. The Union of the Perito- 
neal and Muscular Coats. 

6. The Mucous or Villous 
Coat. 

7.7.7. Valvulae Conniventes, seen 
thus in consequence of the 



inflation of the Sub-Mucous 
Cellular Tissue. 



FIG. 315. 
a portion of the mucous 
Coat of the small Intes- 
tines AS ALTERED IN FEVER. 

The Follicles of Lieber- 
kuhn being filled with a 
white tenacious mucus. 



1.1. Valvulae Conniventes. 

2.2. The Summits of two of the 
Valvule placed side by side. 

The Villi cover the whole Mem- 
brane, but are best seen on its 
edges in. this cut. 



FIG. 316. 
One of the Conglomerate 
Glands of Brunner, from 
the commencement of the 
Duodenum. Magnified an 
hundred times. 



FIG. 317. 
A View of one of the Glan- $ 
dulje Majores Simplices of 
the large Intestine, as seen 
from above, and also in a 
Section, magnified. 



FIG. 318. 
A Longitudinal Section of 
the Upper Part of the Je- 
junum extended under wa- 
ter. 

Page 109. 



FIG. 319. 

A Longitudinal Section of 
the End of the small In- 
testines, or Ileum, and of 
the beginning of the large 
Intestines, or Colon. 

1.1. A portion of the Ascending 
Colon. 

2.2. The Ccecum,or Caput Coli. 

3.3. Lower portion of the Ileum. 

4.4. The Muscular Coat, covered 
by the Peritoneum. 

5.5. The Cellular and Mucous 
Coats. 

6.6. Folds of the Mucous Coat at 
this end of the Colon. 

7.7. Prolongations of the Cellular 
Coat into these Folds. 

8.8. Ileo-Colic Valve. 

9.9. The Union of the Coats of 
the Ileum and Colon. 



FIG. 320. 



FIG. 321. 





FIG. 323. 



FIG. 324. 





THE INTESTINAL CANAL. 



FIG. 320. | 

A View of a Longitudinal Section of the 
Ileum, extended under Water. The Vil- 
li and Mucous Follicles, known as the 
Glands of Brunner, are well seen. The 
Follicles are rendered more apparent by > 
their being indurated, and their Orifices 
been at the surface of the intestine. 
There are no Valvule Conniventes in 
this piece. 

FIG. 321. 
A View of a portion of the Ileum with the 
Veins injected. 

1. The Intestine. 

2. The Mesentery. 

FIG. 322. 

A View of a portion of two of the Valvule 
Conniventes with their Villi, taken from ( 

Page 



a Woman who was drowned shortly after 
eating. The Villi are filled with Chyle 
and appear as small cylindrical prolon- 
gations, curved towards their free ex- 
TREMITY. 



FIG. 323. 

A PORTION OF ONE OF THE PATCHES OF PeYEr's 

Glands from the end of the Ileum, highly 
magnified. the vllli are also seen. 



FIG. 324. 

A View of a Longitudinal Section of the 
Jejunum, showing the Villi as seen under 
the Microscope. 

1.1. The Terminal Orifices of the Villi. 

2.2. The Internal Coats of the Intestine. 
3. The Peritoneal Coat. 

no. 



FIG. 325. 



FIG. 326. 





FIG. 328. 



FIG. 327. 





THE INTESTINAL CANAL, 



FIG. 325. 
A View of the Cozcum — after 

IT HAS BEEN DISTENDED — DRIED 
AND LAID OPEN IN FRONT. 

1. The Ascending Colon. 

2. One of the Cells of the Colon. 

3. The Ileo-Colic Valve. 

4. The Opening into the Appen- 
dicula Vermiformis. 

5. Appendicula Vermiformis. 

6. A Section of the Lower End 
of the Ileum. 



FIG. 326. 
A View of the Mesocolon in 
its connexion with the Me- 
sentery, AS WELL AS THE CON- 
NEXIONS of the Colon with 
the Mesocolon — the Open- 
ing of the Ileum into the 
ccecum, and the passage of 
the Duodenum from the Su- 
perior to the Inferior Part 
of the Abdomen. 

1. The Peritoneum of the Lum- 
bar Region, and the Origin of 
the Left Lumbar Mesocolon. 



2. The Left Lumbar Portion of ) 
the Mesocolon. 

3. The Transverse Mesocolon. 

4. The Right Lumbar Mesoco- 
lon. 

5. The Union of the Mesocolon 
with the Mesentery. 

6. The Mesentery. 

7.7. The Folds of the Mesentery 
cut off from the small Intes- 
tines. 

8. Lower End of the Ileum. 

9. The Ccecum. 

10.10. The Ascending Colon. 

11. The Transverse Colon. 

12. The Descending Colon. 

13. The Sigmoid Flexure. 

14. The Anterior Muscular Band 
of the Colon. 

15. The Duodenum, passing 
from the Superior to the In- 
ferior Portion of the Abdo- 
men. 

16. The Colon ending in the 
Rectum. 

17. Section of the Ileum. 



FIG. 327. 



A View of the Muscular Coat 
of the Colon, as seen after 
the removal of the perito- 
NEUM. 

1.1. One of its three Bands of 
Longitudinal Muscular Fi- 
bres. 

2.2. The Circular Fibres of the 
Muscular Coat. 



FIG. 328. 

A View of the Longitudinal 
Muscular Fibres of a Sec- 
tion of the Rectum. 

Termination of the Sigmoid 

Flexure in the Rectum. 

Upper Portion of the Rectum. 

The three Bands of Longitu- 
dinal Fibres of the Colon 
continued upon the Rectum. 
6. The Longitudinal Muscular 

Fibres of the Rectum formed 

by the expansion of those of 

the Colon. 



Page 111. 



FIG. 329. 



FIG. 330. 






THE INTESTINAL CANAL 



FIG. 329. 
A View or the Position and 



Curvature 
Intestines 



s of the large 



1. The End of the Ileum. 

2. Appendicula Vermiformis. 

3. The Ccecum, or Caput Coli. 

4. The Transverse Colon. 

5. The Descending Colon. 

6. The Sigmoid Flexure. 

7. Commencement of Rectum. 
8.8. The Rectum. 

9. The Anus. — The Levator- 
Ani Muscle is seen on each 
side. 



FIG. 330. 
A View of a Portion of the 
Rectum, cut off longitudi- 
nally AND EXTENDED UNDER 
WATER. 

1.1. A Portion of the Perineum. 

2.2. The Anus laid open. 

3.3. The Folds and Doublings 
of the Mucous Coat. 

4.4. Orifices of the Mucous Fol- ! 
licles. 

5.5. The Mucous Lacunae, or 
Pouches near the Anus. 

Page 112. 



FIG. 331. 



A Vertical Section of the 
Parietes of the Anus, with 
the Rectum, so as to show 
the relation of the Rectal 
Pouches to the surround- 
ing Parts, their Orifices 
being marked by bristles. 

1.1. Columns of the Rectum. 

2.2. Rudiments of Columns. 

3. Section of Internal Sphincter. 

4. Section of External Sphincter. 
5.5. Radiated Folds of the Skin on 

the Surface of the Nates. 

6. Imperfect Pouches. 

7. Bristles in the Rectal Pouches. 



FIG. 332. 



FIG. 333. 





FIG. 334. 



FIG. 335. 





MINUTE ANATOMY OF MUCOUS COAT. 



FIG. 332. 

A View of the Follicles op the Colon, mag- 
nified about 115 times. (Wis tar Museum.) 

In the Mucous Coat of the Alimentary Ca- 
nal is to be found a Cribriform Texture of Veins, 
almost without an Artery. The fine Venous 
Trunks of a deeper Layer have their originating 
extremities directed vertically towards the cavity 
of the Gut, and the meshes of the Venous Inter- 
texture are exceedingly minute, producing in the 
Colon an appearance resembling a plate of metal 
pierced with round holes closely bordering on 
each other. These holes are the Follicles of 
Lieberkuhn, are gaping Orifices, the Edges of 
which are rounded off, and their depth is that of 
the thickness of the Venous Anatomosis. The 
aggregate number of these Follicles in the Colon, 
is estimated at Nine Million Six Hundred and 
Twenty Thousand. (Horner's Anat. Vol. 2, p. 48.) 

FIG. 333. 

A View of the Folds and Follicles of the 
Stomach, highly magnified. (W. Museum.) 

In the Stomach the Follicles vary much in size, 
and many of the smaller ones open into the larger. 



On an average, about Two Hundred and Twenty- 
Five are found upon every square of an eighth of 
an inch, which, by calculation from this prepara- 
tion, would give One Million Two Hundred and 
Ninety-Six Thousand Follicles to the entire Sto- 
mach. (Horner's Anat. Vol. 2d, page 48, <Sfc) 

FIG. 334. 
A View of the Follicles and Villi of the 
Jejunum, highly magnified. (W. Museum.) 

The Villi, being erected by injection, here run 
into each other and press one upon another like 
the convolutions of the Cerebrum. Some of them 
are merely semi-oval plates, the Transverse 
Diameter of which exceeds the length or eleva- 
tion. The Follicles are seen between them and 
at their Bases. 



FIG. 335. 

A View of the Villi and Follicles of the 

Ileum, highly magnified. (W. Museum.) 

These Villi are curved with their Edges bent 
in, or concave ; but there is, in the whole Canal, 
every variety of shape, from oblong, curved and 
serpentine Ridges, to the laterally flattened Cone 
standing on its Base. 

113. 



FIG. 336. 




FIG. 337. 



FIG. 338. 





MINUTE ANATOMY OF THE MUCOUS COAT. 



FIG. 336. 

A MAGNIFIED VlEW OF THE FaVOUS DEPRESSIONS 
OF THE MUCOUS COAT OF THE STOMACH, AND 

the Muciparous Glands. (W. Museum.) 



tween the projections or Villi : these are the Fol- 
licles of Lieberkuhn. 



FIG. 337. 
A Section of the Ileum, inverted so as to 

SHOW THE APPEARANCE AND ARRANGEMENT OF 

the Villi on an extended Surface, as well i 

> 

as the Follicles of Lieberkuhn; the whole 

SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE. ( W. Museum.) 

i 

A close examination of this Cut, will show a 
great number of black points in the spaces be- | 

Page 



FIG. 338. 
A Section of the small Intestine containing 

SOME OF THE GLANDS OF PeYER, AS SHOWN 

under the Microscope. (Wistar Museum.) 
These Glands appear to be small Lenticular Ex- 
cavations, containing - , according to Bcehm, a white, 
milky and rather thick Fluid, with numerous round 
Corpuscules of various sizes, but mostly smaller 
than Blood Globules. The Meshes seen in the 
Cut are the ordinary tripe-like Folds of the Mu- 
cous Coat, and not the Venous Texture spoken 
of under the Follicles. 

114. 



FIG. 339. 





FIG. 341. 




FIG. 342. 



FIG. 343. 




FIG. 339. 
A View of a portion of the 
Peritoneum covering the 
Liver, with its Capillary 
Vessels Injected. 

FIG. 340. 
A View of the Liver in Situ, 

TOGETHER WITH THE PARTS 
ADJOINING, IN A NEW-BORN IN- 
FANT. 

1.1. The Integuments of the Ab- 
domen turned back. 

2.2. The Thoracic Surface of a 
Section of the Diaphragm. 

3. Anterior Face of the Right 
Lobe of the Liver. 

4. The Left Lobe. 

5. The Suspensory Ligament. 

6. The Round Ligament. 

7. Point of Origin of the Co- 
ronary Ligament. 

8. The Spleen. 

9. Section of the Stomach. 
10. Upper portion of the Colon. 



\ 3, 

4 

5 
6 

! 7 

8, 
9, 

10, 




FIG. 341. 

The Inferior or Concave Sur- 
face of the Liver, showing 
its Subdivisions into Lobes. 

1. Centre of the Right Lobe. 

2. Centre of the Left Lobe. 



THE LIVER. 

Its Anterior, Inferior or Thin 
Margin. 

Its Posterior, Thick or Dia- 
phragmatic Portion. 
The Right Extremity. 
The Left Extremity. 
The Notch on the Anterior 
Margin. 

The Umbilical or Longitudi- 
nal Fissure. 

The Round Ligament or re- 
mains of the Umbilical Vein. 
The Portion of the Suspen- 
sory Ligament in connexion 
with the Round Ligament. 
Pons Hepatis, or Band of 
Liver across the Umbilical 
Fissure. 

Posterior End of Longitudi- 
nal Fissure. 

( Attachment of the Oblite- 
) rated Ductus Venosus to 
( the Ascending Vena Cava. 
Transverse Fissure. 
Section of the Hepatic Duct. 
Hepatic Artery. 
Its Branches. 
Vena Portarum. 
Its Sinus, or Division into 
Right and Left Branches. 
Fibrous remains of the Duc- 
tus Venosus. 
Gall Bladder. 
Its Neck. 
Lobulus Quartus. 

"age 1 1 5 



\ 25. Lobulus Spigelii. 

26. Lobulus Caudatus. 

27. Inferior Vena Cava. 

28. Curvature of Liver to fit the 
Ascending Colon. 

, 29. Depression to fit the Right 
Kidney. 

1 30. Upper portion of its Right 
Concave Surface over the Re- 
nal Capsule. 

31. Portion of Liver uncovered 
by the Peritoneum. 

32. Inferior Edge of the Coronary 
Ligament in the Liver. 

33. Depression made by the Ver- 
tebral Column. 

FIG. 342. 

A View of the Connexion of 
the Lobulks of the Liver 
with the Hepatic Vein. 

1. Trunk of the Vein. 
2.2. Lobules depending from its 
Branches like leaves on a 
tree, the centre of each being 
occupied by a venous twig — 
the Intra-Lobular Vein. 



FIG. 343. 

1. Nucleated Cells composing 
the Parenchyma of the Gland. 

2. Lobules of Human Liver with 
Ramifications of the Hepatir* 
Vein. 



FIG. 344. 



FIG. 347. 





FIG. 348. 



FIG. 345. 




,1, f <£ 



FIG. 346. 





FIG. 349. 




THE LIVER AND GALL ELADDEP. 



FIG. 344. 

A Horizontal Section of 
three superficial Lobules 
of the Liver, showing the 
two principal Systems of 
Blood- Vessels, 

1.1. Intra-Lobular Veins proceeding 
from the Hepatic Veins. 

2.2. Intra-Lobular Plexus formed by 
branches of the Portal Veins. 

FIG. 345. 
A Horizontal Section of two 
Superficial Lobules, show- 
ing the Intra-Lobular Plex- 
us of Biliary Ducts. 

1.1. Intra-Lobular Veins. 

2.2. Trunks of Biliary Ducts, pro- 
ceeding from the Plexus which 
traverses the Lobules. 

3. Inter-Lobular Tissue. 

4. Parenchyma of the Lobules. 



FIG. 346. 
Angular Lobules in a state 
of Anosmia as they appear 
on the External Surface 
of the Liver. 

1. The Surface. 

2. Inter-Lobular Spaces. 

3. Inter-Lobular Fissures. 

4. Intra-Lobular Veins occupying 
the Centres of the Lobules. 

5. Smaller Veins terminating in the 
central Veins. 



FIG. 348. 
Shows the three Coats of 
the Gall - Bladder sepa- 
rated from each other. 

1 . The External or Peritoneal Coat. 

2. The Cellular Coat with its ves- 
sels injected. 

3. The Mucous Coat covered with 
Wrinkles. 

4.4. Valves formed by this Coat in 
the Neck of the Gail-Bladder. 

5.5. Orifices of the Mucous Follicles 
at this point. 



FIG. 347. 

A View of the Rounded Lob- 
ules IN THE FIRST STAGE OF 

Hepatic Venous Conges- 
tion as they appear on the 
Surface of the Liver. 

1.1. The Lobules. 

2.2. Inter-Lobular Spaces and Fis- 
sures. 

Page 116. 



FIG. 349. 
A View of the Gall-Bladder 
Distended with Air, and 
with its Vessels Injected. 

1. Cystic Artery. 

2 The Branches of it which supply 
the Peritoneal Coat of i lie Liver. 

3. The Branch of the Hppatic Ar- 
tery which goes to the Gall-Blad- 
der. 

4. The Lymphatics of the Gall- 
Bladder. 



FIG. 351. 



FIG. 352. 





FIG. 353. 




FIG. 354. 




THE SPLEEN AND PANCREAS. 



FIG. 350. j 

A View or the Roots, Trunk \ 
and Divisions of the Vena I 
Port a rum. 

1.1. The Veins coming from the In- 
testines. I 
2. Trunk of the Vena Portarum. 
3.3. Branches as distributed in the 
Liver. 

FIG. 351 

Represents the Convex or Ex- 
ternal Face of the Spleen: 
or the side which corre- 
sponds to the Diaphragm. 

1. Its Superior Extremity. 

2. Its Inferior Extremity. 

3.3. Anterior Edge. 

4.4. Posterior Edge. 

5.5. Its Convex Surface. 



FIG. 352 

Shows the Internal Face of 
the Spleen where it touch- 
es the Stomach. 

1. Superior Extremity. 

2. Inferior Extremity. 

3. Posterior Part of the Concave 
Face. 

4. Anterior Part of the same. 

5. Fissure of the Spleen. 

6. Splenic Artery. 

7. Splenic Vein. 

8.8. Anterior Edge of the Spleen. 

9.9. Its Posterior Edge. 



FIG. 353 

Represents the Splenic Vein 
with its Branches and Ra- 
mifications. 

1. Trunk of the Vein. 

2. Gastric Branch of this Vein com- 
ing from the Stomach. 

Page 117. 



3. Branches coming from the Sub- 
stance of the Spleen. 

4. A small Mesenteric Vein cut off. 

5. Branches coming from the Exter- 
nal Coat of the Spleen. 

6. Branches of the Lymphatic Ves- 
sels of the Spleen. 

FIG. 354. 

An Anterior View of the 
Pancreas, Spleen and Duo- 
denum with their Blood- 
vessels Injected. 

1. The Spleen. 

2. Its Diaphragmatic Extremity. 

3. Its Inferior Portion. 

4. The Fissure for its Vessels. 

5. The Pancreas. 

6. Its Head, or the Lesser Pancreas. 

7. Duodenum. 

8. Coronary Arteries of the Sto- 
mach. 

9. The Hepatic Artery. 

10. The Splenic Artery. 

11. The Splenic Vein. 



FIG. 356. 



FIG. 355. 



FIG. 357. 




THE KIDNEYS AND RENAL CAPSULES, 



FIG. 355. 
A View of the Urinary Or- 
gans in Situ. 

1.1. The Kidneys. 

2.2. The Capsulae Renales. 

3.3. The Ureters in their course to , 
the Bladder, and their relations 
to the Blood-Vessels. 

4. Bladder distended with Urine. ', 

5. The Rectum. 

6. The Emulgent Arteries. 

7. The Abdominal Aorta. 

8. Its Division into the Iliacs. 

9. The Primitive Iliacs at the point 
where the Ureters cross them. 



FIG. 356. 

A View of the Right Kidney 

with its Renal Capsule. 

1. Anterior Face of the Kidney. 

2. External or Convex Edge. 

3. Its Internal Edge. 

4. Hilum Renale. 

5. Inferior Extremity of the Kidney. 

6. Pelvis of the Ureter. 

7. Ureter. 

8. ? Superior and Inferior Branches 
9-5 of the Emulgent Artery. 

1^7 The three Branches of the 

1 2 JT Emulgent Vein. 

13. Anterior Face of the Renal Cap- 
sule. 

14. Its Superior Edge. 

15. Its External Edge 



16. Its Internal Extremity. 

17. The Fissure on the Anterior 
Face of the Capsule. 



FIG. 357. 
A Front View of the Left 
Kidney. — The Numbers 
point to the same parts of 
the Gland as in the pre- 
ceding Cut. 



FIG. 358. 
Portion of the Surface of 
the Kidney seen through 
the Microscope. 

Superficial Veins forming a net- 
work on the Surface. 
The Capillary Vessels that these 
Veins receive from the Cortical 
Substance of the Kidney. 
Areolae formed on the Surface by 
the Superficial Veins. 
Smaller Veins forming Stars over 
this Surface. 



5. Three smaller Inferior Calices. 

6. A larger Calix formed by the 
union of these and opening into 
the Pelvis. 

7. Opening of 3 and 4. 

8. Origin of the Ureter. 

9. The Ureter. 

FIG. 360. 
I A Section of the Right Kid- 
ney surmounted by the Re- 
nal Capsule. 

1. Supra-Renal Capsule. 

2. Cortical Portion. 

3. Medullary or Tubular. 

4. Two of the Calices receiving the 
Apex, of their corresponding 
Cones. 

5. The Infundibula. 

6. The Pelvis. 

7. The Ureter. 



FIG. 359. 
A View of the Pelvis of the 
Ureter with the Calices. 

1.1. Two small Calices at the Up- 
per Portion. 
J 2. A larger Calix formed by the 

union of the two preceding. 
< 3.4. Two other Calices. 

- ie 118. 



FIG. 361. 

Vertical Section of the 

Left Kidney. 
Cortical or Vascular Structure. 
Pyramids of Malpighi or Tubular 
Structure. 

Papillae or Apices of Pyramids. 
Terminations of other Papillae in 
Infundibula. 
Calices. 

The three Infundibula. 
Pelvis of the Ureter. 
The Ureter. 




MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY. 



FIG. 362. 

A Section of one of the Pyra- 
mids of Malpighi, and of 
its corresponding Cortical 
Substance, as seen under 
the Microscope. 

1. Portion of the Surface of the 
Kidney. 

2. From this Figure up to 1, is 
the Cortical Substance of the 
Kidney. 

3. From 2 to this number is the 
Tubular portion. 

4. The Foveola. 

5.6. Arteries and Veins ramifying 
through the Kidney. 

7. Arteries to the Acini of the 
Kidney. 

8. Capillary Extremities of 
Veins anastomosing with cor- 
responding Arterioles. 

9. Tortuous Extremities of the 
Arteries directed into the In- 
terior of the Gland. 

10. Bases of the Cones of the 
Cortical and Pyramidal Sub- 
stance of the Kidney. From 
10 to 4 is a collection of these 
Cones. 
11. The Envelope of the Cortical 
Layer. 



12. Prolongations of the Tubu- 
lar portion. 

13. Tortuous Tubes, or those of 
Ferrien. 

14. Straight Tubes, or those of 
Bellini. 

15. Vessels which wind between 
them. 

16. Course of the Uriniferous 
Tubes in theTubular portion. 

17. The matter between these 
Tubes. 

18. Bifurcation of the Straight 
Tubes. 

19. Sections of these Tubes. 

20. Their Orifices. 



FIG. 363. 
A View of Half a Kidney di- 
vided Vertically from its 
Convex to its Concave 
Edge.* One of its Extre- 
mities is perfect. 

1.1. The Lobes which form the 
Kidney. 

2.2. The Lines of Separation of 
these Lobes. 

3. The Cortical Substance. 
4.5. The Pyramids of Malpighi. 
6. The Hilum Renale split up 
and cleared of its Vessels. 

Page 110. 



7.7. Points to the Tubes of Bellini. 
8. One of the Papillae. 

9.10. Two other Papilla*, uncut 
but deprived of the Calices 
that surrounded them. 

11. One of the Foveolae in the 
Papilla. 

12.12. The Vascular Circle sur- 
rounding the Papilla?. 

13. Circumference of the Tub" 
lar portion. 

14. External Surface of the Kid- 
ney. 

15. The portion of its External 
Surface on a Line with its 
Fissure. 



FIG. 364 
Represents the Half of a 
Kidney divided Vertically, 
and with its arteries in- 
JECTED. The Matter mas 

ALSO PASSED INTO THE EX- 
CRETORY Ducts. 

1.2. Branches of the Emulgent Ar- 
tery. 
i 3 3. Hilum Renale. 
4.4. Conical Substance, asessentially 
formed by the Capillary Termi- 
nations of the Vessels of the 
Kidney. 
i 5. Medullary or Tubular portion. 



FIG. 365. 



FIG. 366 



FIG. 367. 




MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY. 



FIG. 365. 

A SMALL PORTION OF THE KlD- \ 
KEY MAGNIFIED ABOUT SIXTY 
TIMES. 



1. 

2.2, 
3.3, 

4 
5 
6 



7.7 
7.7 



l-\ 



C cecal Extremity of a Tu- 
bulus Urirriferus. 
Recurrent Loops of Tubuli. 
Bifurcations of Tubuli. 

Tubuli converging towards 

the Papilla, 
f Corpora Malpigbiana seen 

to consist of Plexuses of! 
I Blood-Vessels, connected 
I with a Capillary net-work. 
Arterial Trunk. 



FIG. 366. 

Portion of the Kidney of a 
new-born Infant. Natural 
Size. 

1.1. Corpora Malpighiana as dis- 
persed Points in the Corti- 
cal Substance. 

2.2. Papilla. 



FIG. 367. 
A smaller Part, magnified. 
1.1. Corpora Malpighiana. 
2. Tubuli Uriniferi. 



FIG. 368. 

s Extremity of one of the Tu- 
< buli Uriniferi from the Kio- 
> ney of an Adult, showing 
\ its Tesselated Epithelium. 
\ Magnified 250 Diameters. 

FIG. 369. 

Corpora Wolffiana as shown 
in the embkyo of blrds, 
with the Kidney and Testes. 
1. Kidney. 

2.2. Ureters. 

3. Corpus Wolffianum. 

4. Its Excretory Duct. 

5.5. Testicles. — On the top of the 
Figure are seen the Supra- 
Renal Capsules. 



Pace 120. 



FIG. 370. 



FIG. 371. 





FIG. 372. 




THE BLADDER AND URETHRA. 



FIG. 370. 

The Bladder and Urethra op 
a man, laid open in its whole 

LENGTH. 

1.1. The Bladder, cut open by a 
crucial Incision and the four 
Flaps separated. 

2. The Ureters. 

3. Their Vesical Orifices. 

4. Uvula Vesicae. The Trian- 
gle formed by the Points at 
3.4 is the Vesicle Triangle. 

5. Superior Fundus of the Blad- 
der. 

6. Bas Fond of the Bladder. 

7. The smooth Centre of the 
Vesical Triangle. 

8. Verumontanum or Caput Gal- 
linaginis. 

9. Orifice of the Ductus Ejacu- 
latorius. 

10. Depression near the Veru- 
montanum. 

11. Ducts from the Prostate 
Gland. 

12.13. Lateral Lobes of the Pros- 
tate Gland. 

14. Prostatic Portion of the Ure- 
thra ; just above is the Neck 
of the Bladder. 

15. Its Membranous Portion. 

16. One of Covvper's Glands. 

17. The Orifices of their Excre- 
tory Ducts. 

18. Section of the Bulb of the 



20. 
21. 
22. 



Urethra with its Erectile Tis- < 10. Vas Deferens of the same 
sue. Side. 

11.11. The Lateral Lobes of the 
Prostate Gland. 

12. Muscular Fibres which run 
on the Sides of the Prostate. 

13. Other Fibres on its Anterior. 

14. The Urethra tied with a Cord. 



19. Cut Edges of the Corpora 
Cavernosa. 

Cut Edges of the Glans Penis 
Prepuce dissected off. 
Internal Surface of the Ure- 
thra laid open. 

23. Outer Surface of Corpora 
Cavernosa. 

24.25. Accelerator Urinee Muscle. 

26.27. Erector Penis Muscle. 



FIG. 371. 
A Three-Quarter View op 
the Urinary Bladder, dis- 
tended with Air and show- 
ing its Muscular Fibres. 
| 1.1. The Bladder. 
> 2. Urachus. 

s 3. Two Planes of Longitudinal 
Muscular Fibres on the An- 
terior and External Portion 
of the Bladder. 

4. A Band of Fibres separat- 
ing from these and running 
upwards and outwards. 

5. Muscular Fibres which form 
Loops on the Posterior Sur- 
face of the Bladder. 

6.7. Other Muscular Fibres form- 
ing a Layer between the Ex- 
ternal and the Internal. 

8. Left Ureter. 

9. Left Portion of the Vesiculae 
Seminalis. 

Page 3 21. 



FIG. 372. 

Another Urinary Bladder 
distended with Air, and 
showing a different Ar- 
rangement of the Muscular 
Fibres. 

1. Neck of the Bladder. 

2. Two Bands of Fibres on the 
Anterior and External Face9 
of the Bladder, running up to 
its top, and answering to those 
marked 3, in Fig. 371. 

3. Urachus raised up on the sum- 
mit of the Bladder. 

4. Inferior Fundus. 

5. Right Ureter surrounded by 
Muscular Fibres. 

6. Very strong Muscular Fibres 
running upwards to lose them- 
selves under No. 2. 

7. Other strong Fibres intercross- 
ing with these. 

8. Fibres passing from the Neck 
and Inferior Fundus to the Su- 
perior Fundus. 

9. Internal Layer of Fibres. 




FIG. 374. 



FIG. 375. 




THE GENITO-URINARY ORGANS, 



FIG. 373. 

A View of the Sphincter Ap- 
paratus of the Neck of the 
Bladder, as described in 
Vol. II., p. 94, Horner's Spe- 
cial Anatomy. 1843. 

1.1. Orifice of the Neck of the 
Bladder. 

2.2. Orifices of the Ureters. 

3.3. The Triangular Muscle un- 
der the Vesical Triangle. 

4.4. The Crescentic Muscular 
Fibres at the Neck of the 
Bladder. 

5. The Transverse Fasciculus 
of Muscular Fibres. 



FIG. 374. 

A Side View of the Position 
of the Urinary Bladder, 
Prostate and Vesiculte Se- 
minales, in the Cavity of 
the Pelvis. 

1. Symphysis Pubis. 

2. Section of the Ilium. 

3. A Section of the Left Corpus 
Cavernosum. 

4. A Vertical Section of both of 
the'Corpora Cavernosa. 

5. Ligamentum Suspensorium of 
the Penis. 



6. Bulb of the Urethra. 

7. A Vertical Section of the 
Urethra. 

8. Membranous Portion of the 
Urethra. 

9. Prostate Gland. 

10. Left Seminal Vesicle. 

11. Left Vas Deferens. 

12. Left Ureter. 

13. Urinary Bladder, emptied 
and flattened. 

14. Tendon of the Rectus Abdo- 
minis. 

15. Right Pyramidalis Muscle. 

16. Peritoneum. 

17. Section of the Psoas Magnus. 

18. Section of the Iliacus Inter- 
nus. 

19. Gluteus Minimus. 

20. Gluteus Medius. 

21. Gluteus Maximus. 

122. Section of the Pyriformis. 
23. Musculus Ischio-Coccygeus. 
24. Obturator Internus. 
25. Last Bone of the Coccyx. 
i 26. Gluteus Maximus. 

27. Right Ramus of the Pubis. 

28. Sigmoid Flexure of the Co- 
lon. 

{ 29. Rectum. 

30. Anus, 
f 31. External Sphincter Muscle. 



FIG. 375. 
A Side View of the Viscera 
of the Pelvis, showing the 
Bladder and its surround- 
ing Parts. 

1. Symphysis Pubis. 

2. The Bladder. 

3. The Recto- Vesical Fold of 
the Peritoneum. 

4. The Ureter. 

5. The Vas Deferens. 

6. Vesicula Seminalis of the 
Right Side. 

7. Section of the Prostate Gland. 

8. Section of the Neck of the 
Bladder. 

9. Prostatic Portion of Urethra. 

10. Membranous Portion. 

11. Corpus Spongiosum. 

12. Anterior Ligament of the 
Bladder. 

13. Rectal End of the Pelvic 
Fascia. 

14. Space between the Deep and 
Pelvic Fascia. 

15. Triangular Ligament. 

16. One of Covvper's Glands. 

17. Continuation of Superficial 
Perineal Fascia. 

18. Scrotum. 

19. Deep Fascia prolonged to the 
Rectum. 

20. Portion of the Levator Ani. 
21.22. Course of Deep Fascia. 



Page 122. 



FIG. 379 



FIG. 382. 




THE PENIS. 



FIG. 376. 

A View of the Glans Pe- 
nis Injected. 

1.1. Portions of the Corpora Ca- 
vernosa. 

2. The Prepuce turned back. 

3. Its Frtrnum. 
4.4. Glandules Odoriferae Tysoni. 

5. Point of the Glans Penis. 

6. Prominences of the Glans on 
each side of (he Fraenum. 

7. The Furrow which separates ! 
the Sides of the Glans. 

8. Corona Glandis. 



FIG. 377. 

The Penis deprived of 
its Skin, distended, 
dried and seen on its 
Inferior Surface. 

1. Surface of the Cellular Mem- 
brane of the Penis separated 
from the Skin. 

2. The Corpora Cavernosa. 

3. Septum Pectiniforme as seen 
from behind. 

4. Urethra, surrounded by (he 
Corpora Cavernosa. 

5. Internal Surface of the Skin. 

6. Glans Penis. 

7. Thickness of the Cellnltir 
Membrane as shown in a Sec- 
tion of the Penis. 

8. Fibrous Membrane of the Cor- 
pora Cavernosa. 



FIG. 378. 

A Section of the Penis 

INFLATED, DRIED, AND 
DEPRIVED OF ITS EXTER- 



NAL Cellular Mem- 
brane. 

1. Fibrous Coat of the Corpora 
Cavernosa. 

2. Corpora Cavernosa. 

3. Their Septum. 

4. Corpus Spongiosum Urethras. 

5. Canal of the Urethra. 

6. Internal Filaments of the Cor- 
pora Cavernosa which puss 
from the Median Septum to 
the External Fibrous Mem- 
brane. 



19. Right Vesicula Seminalis. 
! 20. Vas Deferens. 
21. Rectum covered by the Pel- 
vic Fascia. 
122. Portion of the Levator Ani 

Muscle. 
] 23. Sphincter Ani. 
; 24. Space between the Deep and < 
Superficial Perineal Fascia 



FIG. 379. 

A Side View of the Vis- 
cera oftheMale Pel- 
vis in Situ, as given 
by a Vertical Section 
through the Bones of 
the Pelvis. 

1. Section of the Pubis. 



Section of the SacrumY 

3. Body of the Bladder. 

4. Its Fundus. 

5. The Base of the Bladder. 

6. The Ureter. 

7. The Neck of the Bladder. 

8. Pelvic Fascia. 
<J. Prostate Gland. 

10. Membranous Portion of the 
Urethra. 

11. Tiiangular Ligament. 

12. One of Oowper's Glands. 

13. The Bulb of the Corpus Spon- 
giosum. 

14. Body of Corpus Spongiosum. 

15. End of Corpus Cavernosum. 

16. Sigmoid Flexure of theCulon 

17. Recto -Vesical Fold of the 
Peritoneum. 

18. Muscular Fibres of the Rec- 
tum. 



FIG. 380. 

A View of the Septum 
Pectiniforme of the 
Corpora Spongiosa. 

1. Course of the Urethra. 

2. Glans 1'cnis. 

3. Vena Dorsalis Penis. 

4. Posterior Portion of the Sep- 
tum. 

5. Comb-like Processes of Sep- 
tum Pectiniforme. 



1. Glans Penis. 

2. Orifice of the Urethra. 

3. Fossa Naviculars. 

4. Corpus Spongiosum Urethra- 

5. Anterior Poriion of the Sep- 
tum Pectiniforme. 

6. Its Posterior Portion. 

7. Bulbous portion of iheUrethra. 

8. Bulb of the Corpus Spongio- 
sum. 

9. Posterior End of the Corpus 
Cavernosum. 



FIG. 381. 

A View of the Arteries 
of the Penis Injected. 
The Penis is distend- 
ed and dried. 

I 1.2 3. Represent the same parts 
as in the previous Figure. 

\ 4. Arteria Dorsalis Penis. 

\ 5.6. Deep Arteries of the Cor- 
pora Cavernosa giving off 

> Branches to these Bodies. 

FIG. 382. 

i A Vertical Section of 
\ the Penis and Ure- 
s thra. 



FIG. 3S3. 

The Vesicula Semina 
les, Bladder and Pros- 
tate, the Right Semi- 
nal Vesicle only is 
opened, the Left is in- 
jected AND DISTENDED. 

1. The Urinary Bladder, 

2. The Posterior Longitudinal 
Layer of Muscular Fibres. 

3. The Prostate Glttnd. 

4. Membranous Portion of tho 
Urethra. 

5. The Ureters. 

6. Blood-Vessels. 

7. Right Vas Deferens. 

8. Lel'i Vas Deferens. 

1). Right Seminal Vesicle in its 
Natural Position. 

10. Ductus Ejaculatorius of the 
Right Side traversing the Pros- 
tate Gland. 

11. Left Seminal Vesicle injected 
with wax and dissected out. 

12. Blind Pouches of Vesicula:. 

13. Other Appendages. 

14. Left Ductus Ejaculatorius 
traversing the Prostate. 



Page 153. 



FIG. 384. 



*4h 




FIG. 385. 




THE MALE PERINEUM 



FIG. 384. 

A View of the Muscles of the Perineum of 
the Male. Only one side is referred to. 

1. Ascending Ramus of the Ischium. 

2. Tuber lschii. 

3. Posterior Face of the Coccyx. 

4. Portion of the Great Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

5. Musculus Accelerator Urinae. 

6. Erector Penis Muscle. 

7. Transversus Perinei. 

8. Sphincter Ani. 

9. Levator Ani. 

10. Musculus Coccygeus. 

11. Section of the Gluteus Magnus. 

12. Adductor Longus. 

13. Adductor Brevis. 

14. Adductor Magnus. 

15. Extremity of the Gluteus Magnus. 

16. The Urethra. 

17. Corpora Cavernosa turned up. 

18. Spermatic Cord turned up. 

1 9. Free Extremity of the Penis with its Integu- 
ments. 



FIG. 385. 
A View of the Interior of the Pelvis, as 

SEEN FROM ABOVE. 

1. Symphysis Pubis. 

2. Ueo-Pectineal Protuberance. 

3. A Section of the Body of the Ilium. 

4. Obturator Internus freed from the Pelvic 
Fascia. 

5. Pyriformis Muscle. 

6. Ischio-Pubic Bands of the Pelvic Fascia. 

7. Part of the Levator Ani Muscle. 

8. The Portion of the Fascia of the opposite 
side which covers it. 

9. Lesser Sacro-Sciatic Ligament. 

10. Spine of the Ischium. 

11. Opening for the Obturator Vessels. 

12. Openings for the Sacral Plexi of Nerves and 
the Blood-Vessels. 

13. Top of the Greater Ischiatic Foramen. 

14. A little Muscle, occasionally seen and known 
as the Curvator Coccygis of Sommerring. 

15. Section of the End of the Sacrum and Coc- 
cyx. 



Faae ±24. 



FIG. 386. 




FIG. 386. 

A View of the Position of 
the Testicle in a Foztus of 
about Six Months, show- 
ing THE GUBERNACULUM TES- 
TIS. 

1. Lower Portion of the Liver. 

2. The Kidneys. 

3. The Emulgent Vessels. 

4. The Aorta. 

5. The Ascending Cava. 

6. The Ureter. 

7. Spermatic Vessels. 

8.8. Testicle in the Iliac Fossa 

and also in the Scrotum. 

9. Gubernaculum Testis of one 

Side. 

10. Tunica Vaginalis in advance 
of the Testis. 

11. Rectum filled with Meconium. 

12. Tunics of Scrotum. 



FIG. 387. 

A Diagram of the Descent of 

the Testis as shown by a 

Lateral Section. 

1. The Testis. 

2. The Epididymis. 



THE TESTICLE. 

3. The Peritoneum. 

4. The Portion of it thrust down- 
ward by the Testis in its de- 
scent. 

5. Point of Insertion of the Cre- 
master Muscle. 

6. The Portion of its Fibres 
coming from the Fibres of the 
Internal Oblique and Trans- 
versalis. 

7. Gubernaculum Testis. 

8. Cavity of the Scrotum. 

In the other Figure the Testis 
has completed its descent, the 
Gubernaculum is shortened to 
its utmost, and the Cremaster 
everted. The Pouch of the Pe- 
ritoneum above the Testis is 
compressed so as to form a Tu- 
bular Canal. The Dotted Line 
at 1 marks where the Tunica 
Vaginalis will terminate. 

FIG. 388. 

The Tunica Vaginalis Testis 
and Coverings of the Sper- 
matic Cord. 

1.1. The Spermatic Cord. 



2. The Testicle covered by the 
Tunica Albuginea. 

3. The Epididymis covered by 
the same Membrane. 

4. Tunica Vaginalis Testis. 

5. Common Covering of the 
Testicle and Spermatic Cord. 

6. Proper Sheath of the Sper- 
matic Cord. 



FIG. 389. 

A Transverse Section of the 
Testicle. 

1. The Cavity of the Tunica Va- 
ginalis. 

2. The Tunica Albuginea. 

3. Corpus Highmorianum or Me- 
diastinum Testis. The cut 
ends of the vessels below the 
figure belong to the Rete Tes- 
tis ; those above, to the Blood- 
vessels of the Testicle. 

4. Tunica Vasculosa of the Tes- 
tis. 

5. One of the Lobules of the Tu- 
buli Seminiferi terminating in 
the Vas Rectum. 

6. A Section of the Epididymis. 



Page 125 



FIG. 390. 



FIG. 391. 



FIG. 392. 




FIG. 393. 



FIG. 394. 



FIG. 395. 




THE TESTICLE AND MUCOUS GLANDS, 



FIG. 390. 
The relative Position of the 
Prostate, Vesicul^: Semi- 
nales and bladder, as seen 
from before, after the re- 
MOVAL of the Perineal Mus- 



5.5. Arteries to the Vesiculae. 

6. Portion of the Peritoneum co- 
vering the Posterior Part of the 
Vesiculae. 

7. Ejaculatory Ducts. 



CLES. 



1. Section of the Urethra. 

2. Prominences formed by the Bulb 
of the Urethra. 

3. Membranous Portion of the Ure- 
thra. 

4. Prostate Gland. 

5. Vesiculae Seminales. 

6. Fundus of the Bladder lying upon 
the Rectum. 

7. Section of the Rectum. 

8. Portion of the Coccyx. 



FIG. 391. 
A Vertical Section of the 
Union of the Vas Deferens 
and Vesicul.se Seminales so 

AS TO SHOW THEIR CAVITIES. 

1.1. Vas Deferens with thick Parie- 
tes and narrow Cavity. 

2.2. Portion of the same where the 
Cavity is enlarged. 

3.3. The Extremities of the Vas De- 
ferens from each side where 
they join the Vesiculae Semina- 
les and Ductus Ejaculatorius. 

4.4. Vesiculae Seminales distended 
with air and dried. 



8. Globus Minor of the Epididymis. 

9. Vas Deferens. 



FIG. 392. 
A Vertical Section of the 
Bladder and Urethra. 

1. The Urethra laid open. 

2. Fundus of the Bladder. 

3. Anterior Parietes of the Bladder. 

4. Urachus. 

5. Orifice of the Left Ureter. 

6. Orifice of the Right Ureter. 

7. Verumontanum. 

8. Bulb of the Urethra. 

9. Prostate Gland. 

10. Vas Deferens. 

11. Ureter. 

12. Vesicula Seminalis. 



FIG. 393. 
\ The Testicle injected with 
Mercury. 

1. Tunica Albuginea. 

2. Seminiferous Tubes. 

3. The Rete Vasculosum Testis. 

4. A Globule of Mercury which has 
ruptured the Tubes. 

5. The Vasa Efferentia which form 
the Coni Vasculosi. 

6. Coni Vasculosi forming the Head 
of the Epididymis. 

7. Epididymis. 

Page 126. 



FIG. 394. 
The Testis more minutely in- 
jected with Mercury. 

1.1. Lobules of the Tubuli Semini- 
feri. 

2. Rete Testis. 

3. Vasa Efferentia. 

4.5. Coni Vasculosi forming the 
Globus Major. 

6. The Epididymis. 

7. Vasculum Aberrans. 

8. Globus Minor. 

9. Vas Deferens. 



FIG. 395. 
A View of the minute Struc- 
ture of the Testis. 

1.1. Tunica Albuginea. 

2.2. Corpus Highmorianum. 

3.3. Tubuli Seminiferi Convoluted 
into Lobules. 

4. Vasa Recta. 

5. Rete Testis. 

6. Vasa Efferentia. 

7. Coni Vasculosi constituting the 
Globus Major of the Epididy- 
mis. 

8. Body of the Epididymis. 

9. Its Globus Minor. 

10. Vas Deferens. 

11. Vasculum Aberrans or Blind 
Duct. 



FIG. 396. 



FIG. 397. 




FIG. 399. 




FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION, 



FIG. 396. 
The External Organs of Ge- 
neration IN THE UNMARRIED 
Female, the Labia Majora 
being closed together. 

1.1. Labia Majora. 

2. Rima or Fissura Vulvae. 

3. Fourchette or Posterior Commis- 
sure — the Line of Reference is a 
little too high. 

A. The Anterior Commissure. 
5. Perineum. 

FIG. 397. 

A View of the External Or- 
gans of Generation in the 
unmarried Female — the 
Vulva being partially 

OPEN. 

1.1. Labia Majora. 

2. Fourchette. 

3. Mons Veneris. 



Prepuce of the Clitoris around 
the Glans Clitoris. 
Vestibulum. 
The Nymphae. 

8. The Hymen, open in its cen- 
tral portion and surrounding the 
Inferior exrremity of the Va- 
gina. 

The Perineum. 
The Anus. 



FIG. 398. 

The External Organs of Ge- 
neration in a Female Fo> 
tus at Term. 

1.1. Labia Majora. 

2. Clitoris covered by its Prepuce. 

3. The Nymphae. 

4. Meatus Urinarius. 

5. Vestibulum. 

6. The Hymen pierced with its or- 
dinary Opening. 

7. A thicker Portion of the Hy- 
men forming a sort of FraBnum. 

Page 127. 



FIG. 399. 

A View of the Muscles of the 

Perineum in the Female. 

1. Tuber Ischii. 

2. Sphincter Vaginas Muscle. 

3. Its Origin from the Base of the 
Clitoris. 

4. Vaginal Ring of the same Mus- 
cle, which receives a part of the 
Fibres of the Levator Ani. 

5. Intercrossing of the Sphincter 
Ani and Sphincter Vaginae Mus- 
cles at the Perineal Centre. 

6. Erector Clitoridis Muscle. 

7. The Clitoris covered by its Pre- 
puce. 

8. Transversus Perinei Muscle of 
the Female. 

9. Sphincter Ani. 

10. Levator Ani. 

11. The Gracilis. 

12. Adductor Magnus. 

13. Posterior Part of the Gluteus 
Magnus. 



FIG. 400. 



FIG. 401. 




FIG. 402. 




FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 



FIG. 400. 

A Side View of the 
Viscera of the Fe- 
male Pelvis. 

1. Symphysis Pubis. 

2. Abdominal Parietes. 

3. The Fat forming the 
Mons Veneris. 

4. The Bladder. 

5. Entrance of the Left 
Ureter. 

6. Canal of the Urethra. 

7. Meatus Urinarius. 

8. The Clitoris and its 
Prepuce. 

9. Left Nympha. 

10. Left Labium Majus. 

11. Orifice of the Vagina. 

12. Its Canal and Trans- 
verse Rugae. 

13. The Vesico - Vaginal 
Septum. 

14. The Vagino - Rectal 
Septum. 

15. Section of thePerineum. 

16. Os Uteri. 

17. Cervix Uteri. 

18. Fundus Uteri. 

19. The Rectum. 

20. The Anus. 

21. Upper Portion of the 
Rectum. 

22. Recto-Uterine Fold of 
the Peritoneum. 

23. Utero-Vesical Reflec- 
tion of the Peritoneum. 

24. The Peritoneum re- 
flected on the Bladder 
from the Abdominal 
Parietes. 

25. Last Lumbar Verte- 

bra. 

26. The Sacrum. 

27. The Coccyx. 



FIG. 401. 
A Vertical Section 

THROUGH THE LlNEA 

Alba and Symphy- 
sis Pubis so as to 
show the Bladder, 
Vagina,Uterus and 
Rectum in Situ. — 
The Peritoneum 
has been cut at the 
Points where it is 
Reflected. 

1. Anterior Parietes of 
the Abdomen. 

2. Sub- Cutaneous Cel- 
lular Tissue. 

3. Hairs on the Mons Ve- 
neris. 

4. Cellular Tissue on the 
Mons Veneris. 

5. Rectus Abdominis of 
the Right Side* 

6. Right Labia Majora. 

7. Symphysis Pubis. 

8. The Clitoris. 

9. Its opposite Crus. 

10. Right Labia Minora. 

11. Orifice of the Vagina. 

12. Portion of the Left 
Labia Minora. 

13. The Fourchette, or 
Posterior Commissure 
of the Vulva. 

14. The Perineum. 

15. The Anus. 

16. A Portion of the Inte- 
guments of the But- £ 
tock. 

17. Left Side of the Blad- 
der. 

18. Neck of the Bladder. 

19. The Urethra. 

20. Meatus Urinarius. 



21. Entrance of the Left 
Ureter into the Blad- 
der. 

22. Left Ureter cut off. 

23. Left Side of the Va- 
gina. 

24. Left Side of the Neck 
of the Uterus outside 
of the Vagina. 

25. Fundus of the Uterus. 

26. Left Fallopian Tube 
separated from the Pe- 
ritoneum. 

27. Its Fimbriated Extre- 
mity. 

28. Its Entrance into the 
Uterus. 

29. Left Round Ligament. 

30. Left Ovary. 

31. Fimbriated Portion 
which unites the Tube 
to the Ovary. 

32. Insertion of the Liga- 
ment of the Ovary to 
the Uterus. 

33. Right Broad Ligament 
of the Uterus. 

34. Lower Portion of the 
Rectum. 

35. Rectum turned off and 
tied. 

36. The Peritoneum lin- 
ing the Anterior Parie- 
tes of the Abdomen. 

37. The Peritoneum which 
covers the PosteriorPa- 
rietes of the Abdomen. 



FIG. 402. 
The Uterus, Fallo- 
pian Tubes, Ovaries 
and a Part of the 
Vagina of a Female 
of Sixteen Years. 
On one Side the 



Tube and Ovary is 
divided Vertically; 
the other Side is 
untouched. The An- 
terior Portion of 
the Uterus and Va- 
gina have also been 
removed. 

I. Fundus of the Uterus. 

I. Thickness of its Parie- 
ties anteriorly. 

5. External Surface of the 
Uterus. 

I. Section of the Neck of 
the Uterus. 

5. Section of the Anterior 
Lip. 

3. Its Posterior Lip un- 
touched. 

7. Cavity of the Uterus. 

1. Cavity of its Neck. 

J. Thickness of the Walls 
of the Vagina. 

). Its Cavity and Poste- 
rior Parietes. 

L. Openings of Fallopian 
Tubes into the Uterus. 

I. Cavity of the Left 
Tube. 

5. Its Pavilion. 

1. Corpus Fimbriatum. 

>. Its Union with the 
Ovary. 

5. Left Ovary vertically 
divided. 

f. The Vesicles in its Tis 
sue. 

i. Ligament of theOvary. 

). Right Fallopian Tube, 
untouched. 

). Its Corpus Fimbria- 
tum. 

.. Right Ovary. 

!. The Broad Ligament. 



Page 128. 



FIG. 403. 




FIG. 404. 



FIG. 405. 





FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION, 



FIG. 403. 
A View of the Uterus, Ovaries, Fallopian 
Tubes, Round Ligaments, Vagina and a 
Portion of the External Parts of the 
Female. 

1. Anterior Face of the Uterus covered by the 
Peritoneum. 

2. Its Fundus. 

3. One of its Superior Lateral Angles near the 
Origin of the Fallopian Tubes. 

4. Sides of the Uterus. 

5. Its Neck embraced by the Upper End of the 
Vagina. 

6. Portion of the Broad Ligaments. 

7. The Ovaries drawn up by Hooks above their 
natural position. 

8. The Ligaments which unite the Ovaries to 
the Uterus. 

9. Fallopian Tubes. 

10. The Enlargement near their Extremities. 

11. Their Trumpet-shaped Mouths. 

12. The Pavilion. 

13. Corpus Fimbriatum. 

14. A Portion of the Fimbriated Processes run- 
ning to the Ovary. 

15. Section of the Round Ligaments. 

16. A Longitudinal Section of the Vagina. 

17. Portion of the External Surface of the Vagina. 

18. A Portion of its Internal Anterior Parietes. 

19. Longitudinal Lines forming a sort of Raphe 
on its Posterior Part. 

20. Transverse Wrinkles or Folds. 

21. Anterior Lip of the Os Uteri. 

22. Its Posterior Lip. 

23. Os Externum. 



24. Perineum. 

25. Caruneulae Myrtitormes drawn out. 

26. Posterior Commissure of the Vulva forcibly 
drawn out. 

27. The Anus. 

28. Labia Majora everted. 

29. The two Halves of the Clitoris and the Labia 
Minora forcibly separated. 

The Rectum, cut off and tied, is seen behind, 
and the Bladder and other parts have been re- 
moved in front. 



FIG. 404. 
A Front View of the Mammary Gland of a 
Female recently Delivered. 

1.1. Circumference of the Gland. 

2.2. The Sub-Cutaneous Veins as seen through 
the Skin. 

3.3. The Nipple pierced by the Lactiferous Tubes. 
4. The Areola. 



FIG. 405. 
The Mammary Gland after the removal of 
the Skin, as taken from the Subject three 
days after delivery. 

1. The Surface of the Chest. 

2. Sub-Cutaneous Fat. 

3. The Skin covering the Gland. 

4. Circumference of the Gland. 

5. Its Lobules separated by Fat. 

6. The Lactiferous Ducts converging to unite in 
the Nipple. 

7. The Nipple slightly raised and showing the 
openings of the Tubes at its Extremity. 

129. 



FIG. 406. 



FIG. 408. 



FIG. 407. 






FIG. 409. 




THE LACTIFEROUS GLANDS. 



FIG. 406. 
A Side View of the Gland as 

BEFORE SHOWN IN FlG. 404. 



FIG. 407. 

A Vertical Section of the 
Mammary Gland, showing 
its Thickness and the Ori- 
gins of the Lactiferous 
Ducts. 

1.2.3. Its Pectoral Surface. 

4. Section of the Skin on the 
Surface of the Gland. 

5. The thin Skin covering the 
Nipple. 

6. The Lobules and Lobes 
composing the Gland. 



The Lactiferous Tubes com- 
ing from the Lobules. 
The same Tubes collected in 
the Nipple. 



FIG. 408. 

A Preparation of the Lacti- 
ferous Tubes, during Lac- 
tation. 

1.2. Top and Base of the Nipple. 

3. Lactiferous Tubes in the Na- 
tural State. 

4. Two in the Nipple which 
are injected. 

5 These Tubes dilated and 
forming a kind of Sinus at 
the Base of the Nipple. 

Page 130. 



6. The Roots of the Lactiferous 
Ducts. 

7. Lobules of the Gland. 

8. The Orifices of the prepared 
Tubes. 



FIG. 409. 
Termination of a Portion of 
a Lactiferous Duct in the 
Cells of the Lobules, from 
a Mercurial Injection by 
Sir A. Cooper ; enlarged 
four TIMES. 



FIG. 410. 
The Distribution of the Lac- 
tiferous Ducts during Lac- 
tation; injected with Wax, 
(after Sir A. Cooper). 



PART FOURTH. 



ORGANS OF RESPIRATION 

AND 

CIRCULATION: 

NINETY-EIGHT FIGUBES. 



FIG. 411. 



FIG. 412 




FIG. 413. 






FIG. 414. 




FIG. 416. 




THE LARYNX. 



FIG. 411. 
A Front View of the Thyroid Cartilage. 

1. Left Half of the Cartilage. 

2. Anterior projecting Angle. 

3. Superior Margin. 

4. Its Notch. 

5. Inferior Margin. 

6.6. Cornu Majns of each Half. 

7.7. Cornu Minus of each Half. 



4. Its External Angle. 

5. Its Internal Ang-le. 



FIG. 412. 
A Lateral View of the Thyroid Cartilage. 

1. Its Left Half. 

2. Its Right Half. 

3. The Superior Margin. 

4. The Notch. 

5. Anterior Angle. 

6. Inferior Margin. 

7. Posterior Margin. 

8.8. Cornu Majus of each Side. 
9. Cornu Minus. 



FIG. 414. 

An Anterior View of the Left Arytenoid 
Cartilages. 

1. Its Anterior Face. 

The other References as in Fisf. 413. 



FIG. 415. 

A Lateral View of the Epiglottis Carti- 
lage. 

1. Anterior or Convex Surface. 

2. Posterior or Concave Surface. 

3. Superior Margin. 

4. Inferior Margin or Pedicle. 

5. Its Sides. The Openings of the Muciparous 
Ducts are also shown. 



FIG. 413. 

A Posterior View of the Left Arytenoid 
Cartilages. 

1. Its Posterior Face. 

2. The Summit. 

3. The Base and Cavity for Articulating with 
the Cricoid Cartilage. 

Fage 



FIG. 416. 
A Front View of the Cricoid Cartilage. 

1. Its Internal Face. 

2. The Cavity of the Larynx as formed by this 
Cartilage. 

3. Its Inferior Surface. 

4. The little Head or Convexity for Articulating 
with the Arytenoids. 

5. The Surface of the Superior Edge for the At- 
tachment of the Lateral Crico-Arytenoid Mus- 
cles. 

133. 



FIG. 417. 



FIG. 418. 





FIG. 419. 



FIG 420. 





THE LARYNX, 



FIG. 417. 
A Front View of the Ligaments of the La- 
rynx. 

1. Body of the Os Hyoides. 

2. Its Appendices. 

3. Its Cornua. 

4.5. Thyreo-Hyoid Ligament. 

6. Lateral Thyreo-Hyoid Ligament. 

7. Cornu Majus of each Half of the Thyroid 
Cartilage. 

8. Sides of the Thyroid Cartilage. 

9. Its Projecting Angle. 
10.11. Crico-Thyroid Ligament. 

12. Cornu Minus of each Side of the Thyroid 
Cartilage. 

13. First Ring of the Trachea. 



FIG. 418. 
A Lateral View of the same. 

1. Os Hyoides. 

2. Thyreo-Hyoid Ligament. 

3. Cornu Majus of the Thyroid Cartilage. 

4. Its Angle and Side. 

5. Cornu Minus. 

6. Lateral Portion of the Cricoid Cartilage. 

7. Rin^s of the Trachea. 



FIG. 419. 
A Front View of the Thyroid Gland in Situ. 
1. Os Hyoides. 



2. Thyreo-Hyoid Ligament. 

3. Thyroid Cartilage. 

4. Crico-Thyroid Ligament. 

5. Cricoid Cartilage. 

6. Thyroid Gland. 

7. Trachea. 



FIG. 420. 



A Vertical Section of the Larynx to show 
its Internal Surface. 



9 

10. 
11. 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



Section of the Root of the Tongue. 
Os Hyoides. 

The Muciparous Gland of the Epiglottis. 
Top of the Epiglottis Cartilage. 
A Section of its Anterior Face. 
A Fold of Mucous Membrane from the Ary- 
tenoids to the Epiglottis. 
Superior Vocal Ligament. 
Section of Thyroid Cartilage. 
Ventricle of Galen or Morgagni. 
Lower Vocal Ligament. 
Arytenoid Cartilages. 
Inside of the Cricoid Cartilage. 
Its Posterior Portion. 
Lining Membranes of the Trachea. 
End of the Cornu Majus of the Os Hyoides. 
Cornu Majus of the Thyroid Cartilage. 
Mucous Membrane of the Pharynx. 
CEsophagus. 
Thyroid Gland. 



Page 134. 



FIG. 421. 



FIG. 425. 




THE LARYNX AND THYMUS GLAND 



FIG. 421. 
A Front View of the Crico- 
thyroid Muscles. 

1. Thyroid Cartilage. 

2. Crico-Thyroid Ligament. 

3. Right Crico-Thyroid Muscle. 

4. Its Origin. 

5. Its Insertion. 

6. First Ring of the Trachea. 



FIG. 422. 
A Posterior View of the Ary 

tenoid andcrico-arytenor 

deus Muscles. 
1.2.3. Thyroid Cartilage. 

4. Summit of the Arytenoid 
Cartilages. 

5. Insertion of Arytenoid Mus 
cles. 

6. Cricoid Cartilage. 

7. Its Middle Portion. 
Crico-Arytenoideus Mus- 
cles. 

Posterior Portion of the 
Trachea. 
Arytenoid Muscles. 



\ 5. 
| 6. 

} 8. 

\ 9 ' 
10. 

11. 



-I 12. 



8.9. 



10. 



11, 



FIG. 423. 

A Posterior View of the Ar- 
ticulations of the Carti- 
lages of the Larynx. 
Posterior Face of the Epiglottis. 
Appendices of the Os Hyoides. 
Its Cornua. 

Lateral Thyreo-Hyoid Liga- 
ments. 



Posterior Face of the Thy- 
roid Cartilage. 
Arytenoid Cartilages. 
Cricoid Cartilage. 
C rico - Arytenoid Articula- 
tion. 

Posterior Crico-Thyroid Li- 
gament. 

Cornu Minus of the Thy- 
roid Cartilage. 
Anterior Crico-Thyroid Li- 
gament. 

Ligamentous Portion of the 
first Ring of the Trachea. 



FIG. 425. 

I A View of the Larynx from 
| above, showing the Thyreo- 
Arytenoid or Vocal Liga- 
ments. 



FIG. 424. 
A Vertical Section of the 
Larynx to show some of 
its Muscles. 

1. Cornu Majus of the Thyroid 
Cartilage. 

2. Its Superior Border. 

3. Section of its Body. 

4. Its Internal Surface. 

5. Arytenoid Cartilage. 

6. Posterior Surface of the Thy 
roid Cartilage. 

7.8.9. Arytenoid Muscles. 
10.11. 12. Thyreo-Arytenoid Mus- 
cle. 

13. Crico-Arytenoideus Latera- 
lis Muscle. 

14. Cricoid Cartilage. 
15.16.17. Crico - Arytenoideus 

Posticus. 
18.19. First Rings of the Tra- 
chea as united by Ligament. 



5.5, 
6.6 



9, 
10, 



Superior Edge of the Larynx. 
Its Anterior Face. 
Cornua Majores of the Thy- 
roid Cartilage. 
Posterior Face of the Cricoid 
Cartilage. 

Arytenoid Cartilages. 
Thyreo-Arytenoid Ligam'ts. 
Their Origin within the An- 
gle of the Thyroid Cartilage. 
Their Terminations at the 
Base of the Arytenoid Car- 
tilages. 
The Glottis. 

Anterior Part of the Inferior 
Surface of the Cricoid Car- 
tilage. 



FIG. 426. 

A Section of the Thymus 
Gland at the 8th Month. 

1. Cervical Portion of the Gland. 

2. Secretory Cells seen upon its 
Surface. 

3. The Pores or Openings of the 
Cells and Pouches. The con- 
tinuity of the Reservoir of the 
Lower and Cervical Portion 
of the Gland is also seen. 



Page 135. 



FIG. 427. 



FIG. 428. 




ORGANS OF RESPIRATION 



FIG. 427. 
An Anterior View op the Thoracic Viscera 
in Situ, as shown by the removal of their 
Anterior Parietes. 

1. Superior Lobe of the Right Lung. 

2. Its Middle Lobe. 

3. Its Inferior Lobe. 

4.4. Lobular Fissures. 

5.5. Internal Layer of the Costal Pleura forming 
the Right Side of the Anterior Mediastinum. 

6.6. The Right Diaphragmatic Portion of the Pleura 
Costalis. 

7.7. The Right Pleura Costalis on the Ribs. 

8. Superior Lobe of the Left Lung. 

9. Its Inferior Lobe. 
10.10. Interlobular Fissures. 

11. The Portion of the Pleura Costalis which forms 
the Left Side of the Anterior Mediastinum. 

12. The Left Diaphragmatic Portion of the Pleura 
Costalis. 

13. Left Pleura Costalis. 

14.14. The Middle Space between the Pleurae, known 
as the Anterior Mediastinum. 

15. The Pericardium. 

16. Fibrous Partition over which the Pleurae are re- 
flected. 

17. The Trachea. 

18. Thyroid Gland. 

19. Anterior Portion of the Thyroid Cartilage. 

20. Primitive Carotid Artery. 

21. Subclavian Vein. 

22. Internal Jugular Vein. 

23. Brachio- Cephalic Vein. 

24. Abdominal Aorta. 

25. Xiphoid Cartilage. 



FIG. 428. 
A Posterior View of the Thoracic Viscera, 
showing their relative positions by the 
removal of the posterior portion of their 
Parietes. 

1.2. Upper and Lower Lobes of the Right Lung. 

3. Interlobular Fissures. 

4. Internal Portion of the Pleura Costalis, forming 
one of the Sides of the Posterior Mediastinum. 

5. Twelfth Rib and Lesser Diaphragm. 

6. Reflection of the Pleura over the Greater Mus- 
cle of the Diaphragm on the Right Side. 

7.7. Right Pleura Costalis adhering to the Ribs. 
8.9. The two Lobes of the Left Lung. 

10.10. Interlobular Fissures. 

11.11. The Left Pleura, forming the Parietes of the 
Posterior Mediastinum. 

12.13. Its Reflections over the Diaphragm on this side. 

14.14. The Left Pleura Costalis on the Parietes of the 
Chest. 

15. The Trachea. 

16. The Larynx. 

17. Opening of the Larynx and the Epiglottis Car- 
tilage in Situ. 

18. Root and Top of the Tongue. 
19.19. Right and Left Bronchia. 

20. The Heart enclosed in the Pericardium. 

21. Upper Portion of the Diaphragm on which it 
rests. 

22. Section of the CEsophagus. 

23. Section of the Aorta. 

24. Arteria Innominata. 

25. Primitive Carotid Arteries. 

26. The Subclavian Arteries. 

27. Internal Jugular Veins. 

28. Second Cervical Vertebra. 

29. Fourth Lumbar. 



Page 136. 



FIG. 429. 



FIG. 430. 




ORGANS OF RESPIRATION. 



FIG. 429. 

The Larynx, Trachea and Bronchia, de- 
prived op their Fibrous Covering, and with 
the outline of the lungs. 
1.1. Outline of the Upper Lobes of the Lungs. 
2. Outline of the Middle Lobe of the Right 
Lung. 
3.3. Outline of the Inferior Lobes of both Lungs. 

4. Outline of the 9th Dorsal Vertebra, show- 
ing its relation to the Lungs and the Ver- 
tebral Column. 

5. Thyroid Cartilage. 

6. Cricoid Cartilage. 

7. Trachea. 

8. Right Bronchus. 

9. Left Bronchus. 

10. Crico-Thyroid Ligament. 
11.12. Rings of the Trachea. 

13. First Ring of the Trachea. 

14. Last Ring of the Trachea, which is Corset- 
shaped. 

15.16. A complete Bronchial Cartilaginous Ring. 

17. One which is Bifurcated. 

18. Double Bifurcated Bronchial Rings. 
19.19. Smaller Bronchial Rings. 

20. Depressions for the Course of the large 
Blood-Vessels. 



FIG. 430. 
A View op the Bronchia and Blood-Vessels 
op the Lungs as shown by Dissection, as 
well as the relative position op the 
Lungs to the Heart. 

1. End of the Left Auricle of the Heart. 

2. The Right Auricle. 

3. The Left Ventricle with its Vessels. 

4. The Right Ventricle with its Vessels. 

5. The Pulmonary Artery. 

6. Arch of the Aorta. 

7. Superior Vena Cava. 

8. Arteria Innominata. 

9. Left Primitive Carotid Artery. 

10. Left Sub-Clavian Artery. 

11. The Trachea. 

12. The Larynx. 

13. Upper Lobe of the Right Lung. 

14. Upper Lobe of the Left Lung. 

15. Trunk of the Right Pulmonary Artery. 

16. Lower Lobes of the Lungs. 

The Distribution of the Bronchia and of the 
Arteries and Veins, as well as some of the Air- 
Ceils of the Lungs, are also shown in this dis- 
section. 



Page 137. 



FIG. 432. 



FIG. 431. 



/^yj 



mm 

VVQsp 




FIG. 433. 



FIG. 434. 





FIG. 435. 



* --&X 




¥& (1) 



THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 



FIG. 431. 

First appearance of Blood- Vessels in the 
Vascular Layer of the Germinal Mem- 
brane of a Fowl at the thirty-sixth Hour 
after Incubation. 



FIG. 432. 

A View of the Termination of the Arteries 
in the Veins as shown in the Web of a 
Frog's Foot — Magnified 3 Diameters. 

1.1. The Veins. 

2.2. The Arteries. 



FIG. 434. 

Particles of Frog's Blood, magnified about 
500 Diameters. 

1.1. Their Flattened Face. 

2. A Particle turned Edgeways. 

3. A Lymph Globule. 

4. Blood Corpuscles altered by dilute Acetic 
Acid. 



FIG. 433. 

A Magnified View of the Capillary Circu- 
lation in the Web of a Frog's Foot — Mag- 
nified 110 Diameters. 

1. Trunk of a Vein. 

2.2. Its Branches. 

3.3. Pigment Cells. 



FIG. 435. 

Corpuscles ofHuman Blood, magnified about 
\ 500 Diameters. 

(1). Single Particles. 

1.1. Their Flattened Face. 
2. A Particle seen Edgeways. 
(2). Aggregation of Particles in a Columnar 

Form. 



Pn^e 138. 



FIG. 436. 



FIG. 437. 






FIG. 438. 



FIG. 440. 




THE LUNGS AND HEART, 



FIG. 436. 

An Outline of a Transverse Sec- 
tion of the Chest, showing the 
relative Position of the Pleu- 
ra to the Thorax and its Con- 
tents. 

1. The Skin on the Front of the 
Chest drawn up by a Hook. 

2. The Skin on the Sides of the 
Chest. 

3. That on the Back. 

4. The Sub- Cutaneous Fat and 
Muscles on the outside of the 
Thorax. 

5. Section of the Muscles in the 
Vertebral Gutter. 

6. Section of the 5th Dorsal Verte- 
bra. 

7. The Spinal Canal. 

8. Spinous Process. 

9.9. ~) Sections of the Ribs and In- 
IO.IO.3 tercostal Muscles. 

11. Their Cartilages. 

12. The Sternum. 

13. The Division of the Pulmonary 
Artery. 

14. The Exterior Surface of the 
Lungs. 

15. Posterior Face of the Lungs. 

16. Anterior Face of the Lungs. 

17. Inner Face of the Lungs. 

18. Anterior Face of the Heart co- 
vered by the Pericardium. 

19. Pulmonary Artery. 

20. 7 Its Division into Right and Left 
21.3 Branches. 

22. Portion of the Right Auricle. 

23. Descending Cava cut off at the 
Right Auricle. 

24. Section of the Left Bronchus. 

25. Section of the Right Bronchus. 



26. Section of the (Esophagus. 

27. Section of the Thoracic Aorta. 
The space between Figures 12 and 

18 and the two 16's is the Anterior 
Mediastinum, and the space which 
contains 26 and 27 is the Posterior 
Mediastinum. These spaces are 
formed by the Reflections of the 
Pleurae. 



8. Right Ventricle. 

9. Right Auricle. 
10. Left Ventricle. 



FIG. 437. 

A Magnified View of a Section 
of the Lung, showing the Ar- 
rangement of some of the Lo- 
bules, the Communication of 
the Air-Cells in one Lobule 
and their separation from 
those of the adjoining lobule. 
The Ramifications of the 
Blood-Vessels in the Texture 
of the Lung and their Course 
through the Air-Cells are 
also seen. 

1.1. Branches of the Pulmonary 
Veins. 

2.2. Branches of the Pulmonary 
Artery. 

FIG. 438. 

An Anterior View of the Heart 
in Situ, the Pericardium eeing 
divided and drawn back. 

1. The Greater Muscle of the Dia- 
phragm. 

2. The Xiphoid Cartilage. 

3. Tendinous Centre of the Dia- 
phragm. 

Section of the Pericardium 
drawn off from the Heart. 
The Aorta. 

Descending Vena Cava. 
The Pulmonary Artery. 

Page 139. 



4.4. 

5. 
6. 

7. 



FIG. 439. 

An Anterior View of the Heart 
in a Vertical Position with its 
Vessels injected. 

1. Right Auricle. 

2. Left Auricle. 

3. Right Ventricle. 

4. Left Ventricle. 

5. Descending Vena Cava. 

6. Aorta. 

7. Left Pulmonary Artery. 

8. The Arteria Innominata. 

9. Left Primitive Carotid. 

10. Left Sub-Clavian Artery. _ 

11. Anterior Cardiac Vessels in the 
Vertical Fissure. 
PosteriorVessels from the Trans- 
verse Fissure. 

Main Trunk of the Pulmonary 
Artery. 

FIG. 440. 

A Posterior View of the Heart 
in a Vertical Position and with 
its Vessels injected. 



12 



13 



1. 
2. 
3 

4 
5, 

\ 6 

7, 

8. 

9 

10 

I 11 



Right Auricle. 

Left Auricle. 

Right Ventricle. 

Left Ventricle. 

Ascending Vena Cava. 

Right Posterior Pulmonary Vein. 

Left Posterior Pulmonary Vein. 

End of the Left Auricle. 

Great Coronary Vein. 

Posterior Cardiac Vessels in the 

Vertical Fissure. 

The same in the Transverse Fis- 



FIG. 441. 



FIG. 4 12. 




FIG. 445. 



FIG. 443. 






FIG. 444. 




THE HEART 



FIG. 441. 



An Anterior View op the External Muscu- 
lar Layer of the Heart after the remo- 
val of its Serous Coat, &c. 

1. Right Auricle. 

2. Descending Vena Cava. 

3. Right Anterior Pulmonary Vein. 

4. A Horizontal Band of Fibres passing across 
the Base of the Auricles. 

5. Left Anterior Pulmonary Vein. 

6. Muscular Fibres between the Auricles. 

7. The Fringed or Ring-shaped Bands of Fibres i 
at the Extremity of the Left Auricle. \ 

8. The Muscular Fibres at the Base of the Right > 
Auricle. <, 

9. Section of the Pulmonary Artery, showing 
the Semi-Lunar Valves. 

10.11. The Anterior Bis-Ventricular Muscular Fibres. 
12.13. Their Continuation on to the Left Ventricle. 



FIG. 443. 
A View of the Interior of the Right Ven- 
tricle. The rest of it has been removed, 
but the Left Ventricle is entire. 

1. Section of the Parietes of the Right Ventricle. 

2. Left Ventricle. 

3. Thickness of the Parietes of the Right Ventricle. 



4. Thickness at the commencement of the Pul 
monary Artery. 

5. Anterior Fold of the Tricuspid Valve. 

6. A Portion of the Right Ventricle untouched. 
7.8. Columnae Carneae of the Right Ventricle with 

their Chordae Tendineae. 
9. The Right Side of the Ventricular Septum. 
10.11. Cavities between the Bases of the Columnae 
Carneaj. 

12. The Depression leading to the Pulmonary Ar- 
tery. 

13. Interior of the Pulmonary Artery. Two of the 
Sigmoid Valves are seen, the third has been 
removed. 



FIG. 442. 
A Posterior View of the same. 

1. Right Auricle. 

2. Descending Vena Cava. 

3. Right Posterior Pulmonary Vein. 

4. Muscular Fibres of the Left Auricle. 

5. Left Posterior Pulmonary Vein. 

6.7. The Arrangement of the Muscular Fibres at 
the end of the Left Auricle. 

8. Orifice of the Great Coronary Vein. 

9. Band of fibres between the two Venae Cavae. 
10. The Orifice of the Ascending Vena Cava ; the 

Eustachian Valve is at the end of the Line. 
11.12. Muscular Fibres at the Base of the Auricle. 
13.14. Muscular Fibres in the Ventricles. 



FIG. 444. 

A THREE-Q.UARTER VlEW OF THE LEFT VENTRI- 
CLE AFTER THE REMOVAL OF ITS ANTERIOR Pa- 
RIETES. 

1. Outer Side of the Left Ventricle. 

2. Outer Side of the Right Ventricle. 

3. Thickness of its Outer Parietes. 

4. Thickness of a Section near the Side of the 
Right Ventricle. 

5. The Mitral Valve. 

6.7. Two of the Columnae Carneae with their Chordae 
Tendineae as attached to the Valve. 

8. Thickness of the Ventricular Parietes at the 
Origin of the Aorta. 

9. Cavity of the Aorta. 

10.10. Section of the Superior Surface of the Right 
Ventricle, showing the Ostium Venosum and 
Tricuspid Valve from above. 

11. Tricuspid Valve. 

12. Semilunar Valves of the Aorta. 

FIG. 445. 

A View of the Mitral Valve as seen from 
below. 

The Drawing shows its two Folds, its Chordae Ten- 
dineae arising from the Columnae Carneae and those 
coming from the other Columnae of the Ventricle. 
The lower part of the Figure is the portion of the Left 
j Ventricle from which the main Columnae arise ; the 
\ upper portion is the Left A uriculo- Ventricular Septum 
i around the Left Ostium Venosum. 



±-age 140. 



FIG. 44fi 



FIG. 447. 





FIG. 448. 




THE HEART AND ARTERIES. 



FIG. 446. 

A Vertical View of the Auriculo-Ventricu- 

lar and Arterial Valves, as given by a 

Section of the Heart at the Ostium Ve- 

nosum and of the arteries at their valves. 

1. Depression in the Left Auricle at the Left Ostium 
Venosum. 

2. Depression in the Right Auricle at the Right Os- 
tium Venosum. 

3.3. Section of the Parietes of the Left Auricle. 

4. Superior or Auricular Face of the two Folds of 
the Mitral Valve. 

5. Section of the Greater Coronary Vein. 

6.6. Section of the Parietes at the Base of the Right 
Auricle. 

7. Auricular Face of the three Folds of the Tricus- 
pid Valve. 

8. The Orifice of the Greater Coronary Vein. 

9. Septum of the Auricles. 

10. A Section of the Aorta to show its Sigmoid Valves. 

11. The Pulmonary Artery with its Valves. 



12. The Mitral Valve. 

13. Ventricular Opening of the Aorta. 
14.15. Columnae CarneaB of the Mitral Valve. 



FIG. 447. 

A Transverse Section of the Top of the Ven- 
tricles just below the Base of the Auricles. 

1.1. Section of the Right Ventricle. 

2. Right Auriculo-Ventricular Opening or Ostium 
Venosum. 

3. The largest Fold of the Tricuspid Valve. 

4. Depression to direct the Blood to the Pulmonary 
Artery. 

5. Funnel-shaped enlargement near the Pulmo- 
nary Artery. 

6. Section of one of the Columnae Carneae attached 
by the ChordaeTendineae to the Tricuspid Valve. 
Other Columnae Carneae. 

Section of the External Parietes of the Left 
Ventricle. 

10. Section showing the thickness of the Ventricu- 
lar Septum. 

11. Left Ostium Venosum 

Page 



7.8. 
9. 



FIG. 448. 

A View of the Arteries of the Chest and 

Neck. 

1. The Aorta at its Exit from the Heart. 

2. Ascending Portion of its Arch. One of the 
Coronary Arteries is just below the Line. 

3. Arch of the Aorta. 

4. Arteria Innominata. 

5. Left Subclavian Artery. 

6. Bronchial and Thymic Arteries, which are 
here not from the Aorta but from the Sub-Cla- 
vian Artery. 

7. External Mammary Arteries. 

8. The Superior Phrenic Arteries, branches of 
the last. 

9. The Vertebral Artery. 

10. The Superior Scapular Artery ; on the Right 
it goes to the Fossa Supra-Spinata, and on the 
Left it is lost in the Trapezius Muscle. 

11. Transverse Cervical. 

12. Inferior Thyroid Artery seen on the Body of 
the Gland. 

13. The Cervicalis Ascendens. 

14. Primitive Carotid on the Neck. 

15. Internal Carotid. 

16. External Carotid. 

17. Superior Thyroid Artery. 

18. Arteria Facialis. 

19. Arteria Axillaris. 

20. Superior Thoracic, which furnishes the Acro- 
mial. 

21. Trunk of the Anterior Circumflex and Inferior 
Thoracic. 

22. Posterior Circumflex. 

23. Thoracic Aorta. 
24.24. Intercostal Arteries. 

25. Distribution of the Phrenic Arteries upon the 
Diaphragm. 

141. 



FIG. 449. 




THE CAROTID ARTERY AND ITS BRANCHES. 



FIG. 449. 
A View of the Arteries of the Neck and 
Shoulder. 

1. Primitive Carotid Artery. 

2. Internal Carotid Artery. 

3. External Carotid Artery. 

4. The Superior Thyroid Artery. 

5. Branches to the Muscles. 

6. Main Branch to the Gland. 

7. Inferior Pharyngeal Artery. 

8. Lingual Artery. 

9. Facial Artery. 

10. Its Branches to the Sub-Maxillary Gland. 

11. Sub-Mental Branch. 

12. Principal Branch of the Facial as it goes 

over the Jaw. 

13. Occipital Artery. 

14. Branches to the Muscles on the back of the 
Neck. 

15. Main Trunk to the Occiput. 



16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 



24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 

142 



Posterior Auricular Artery. 
A Branch cut off, which goes to the Parotid 
Gland. 

Origin of the Internal Maxillary Artery. 
Origin of the Temporal Artery. 
Origin of the Anterior Auricular. 
The Sub-Clavian. 
Origin of the Internal Mammary. 
Trunk of the Inferior Thyroid, from which 
arise in this subject the Anterior and Poste- 
rior Cervical Arteries. 

Branch of the Inferior Thyroid going to the 
Thyroid Gland. 

Anterior Cervical going up the Neck. 
Posterior or Transverse Cervical. 
Branches to the Scaleni and Levator Scapulae 
Muscles. 

The Superior Scapular Artery. 
TheThoracica Superior of the Axillary Artery. 
A Branch to the Deltoid. 
Recurrent Branches of the Intercostals 



FIG. 450. 



FIG. 451. 





THE CAROTID ARTERY AND ITS ERANCHES 



FIG. 450. 

A View of the External Carotid Artery 
and its Branches. 

1. Left Primitive Carotid Artery, seen through a 
Section of the Sterno-Cleido-Mastoid Muscle. 

2. Internal Carotid Artery. 

3. External Carotid Artery. 

4. Superior Thyroid Artery. 

5. A Branch to the Sterno-Cleido Muscle. 

6. Lingual Artery. 

7. Origin of the Facial Artery. 

8. Sub-Mental Branch. 

9. Branch to the Sub-Maxillary Gland. 

10. Facial Artery passing over the Jaw. 

11. Inferior Coronary Artery. 

12. Superior Coronary. 

13. Branch to anastomose with the Infra-Orbitar. 

14. Branch to the Alae Nasi. 

15. Anastomosis of Facial with Ophthalmic. 

16. Nasal Branch of Ophthalmic. 

17. Its Frontal Branch. 

18. Branch to the Orbicularis Palpebrarum Muscle. 

19. Origin of the Occipital Artery. 

20. Point where it passes under the SpleniusMuscle. 

21. Posterior Auricular Artery. 

22. Origin of the Internal Maxillary. 

23. Temporal Artery. 

24. Transverse Facial. 

25. Point of Division of the Temporal Artery. 

26. Anterior Temporal Artery. 

27. Middle Temporal Artery. 

28. Posterior Temporal Artery. 

29. Internal Mammary Artery. 

30. Inferior Thyroid Artery. 

31. Transversalis Cervicis Artery. 



FIG. 451. 

A Front View of the Arteries of the Head 

and Neck. 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
j 10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 
i 14. 

15. 
| 16. 
J17. 

18. 

I 19- 
20. 
21. 

I 22. 
\ 23. 
\ 24. 

25. 

26. 
\ 27. 
\ 28. 

29. 

30. 



Primitive Carotid Artery. 
Superior Thyroid Artery. 
Its Muscular Branches. 
Its Main Branch to the Gland. 
External Carotid Artery. 
Facial Artery passing over the Jaw. 
Inferior Coronary Artery. 
Superior Coronary Artery. 
Buccalis Ascendens. 

Anastomosis of the Facial with the Ophthal- 
mic Artery. 

Branches of the External Carotid to the 
Masseter Muscle. 
Temporal Artery where it divides. 
Anterior Temporal Artery. 

Its principal Branches. 

Nasal Branch of the Ophthalmic Artery. 

A Branch to the Forehead. 

Supra-Orbitar Artery. 

Temporal Artery. 

Infra-Orbitar Artery. 

Deep Temporal Artery. 

Anterior Cervical Artery. 

Sub-Clavian Artery. 

Vertebral Artery. 

Transverse Cervical. 

Inferior Thyroid Artery. 

Anterior Cervical. 

Superior Scapular. 

Internal Mammary. 



Page 143. 



FIG. 454. 




THE CAliOTID AND SUBCLAVIAN ARTERIES. 



FIG. 452. 
A View of the Internal Max- 
illary Artery, as given by 
Sections of the Bones of 
the Head and Face. 

1. Primitive Carotid Artery. 

2. External Carotid. 

3. Internal Carotid. 

4. Section of the Superior Thy- 
roid Artery. 

5. Point where the Facial Artery 
crosses the Lower Jaw. 

6. Inferior Coronary Artery. 

7. Superior Coronary Artery. 

8. Point of anastomosis of Fa- 
cial with the Nasal Branch 
of Ophthalmic. 

9. The Occipital Artery. 

10. Posterior Auricular. 

11. Temporal Artery. 

12. Origin of the Internal Maxil- 
lary Artery. 

Meningea Magna of the Dura 
Mater ramifying over its Sur- 
face. 

Inferior Dental Artery in the 
Alveolar Processes of the 
Lower Jaw. 

15. The Pterygoid Arteries. 

16. The Masseter Arteries. 

17. Deep-seated Posterior Tem- 
poral Artery. 



18. Deep-seated Anterior Tem- 
poral Artery. 

19. Buccal Arteries. 

20. Infra- Orbital. 

21. Posterior Palatine. 

22. Origin of the Pterygoid Ar- 
tery. 

23. Origin of the Sphenopala- 
tine. 



a common Trunk with 
Facial. 

13. Internal Carotid. 

14. Origin of the Aorta. 



the 



13. 



14. 



FIG. 453. 
A View of the Vertebral Ar- 
tery, Carotid and Arch of 
the Aorta, as given by a 
Vertical Section of the 
Neck. 

1. Commencement of the Tho- 
racic Aorta. 

2. The Innominata at its Origin. 

3. The Left Sub-Clavian. 

4. The Internal Mammary Ar- 
tery. 

5. The Artery of the Right Side. 

6. The Inferior Thyroid. 

7. The Vertebral in the Trans- 
verse Processes of the Cer- 
vical Vertebrae. 

8. Superior Inter-Costal Artery. 

9. Left Primitive Carotid. 

10. External Carotid Artery. 

11. Superior Thyroid. 

12. The Lingual, which has here 

Page 144. 



FIG. 454. 
The Axillary and Brachial 
Arteries with their Branches. 

1. The Deltoid Muscle. 

2. The Biceps. 

3. The Tendinous Process from 
the Tendon of the Biceps. 

4. Brachialis Interims Muscle. 

5. The Supinator Longus. 

6. The Coraco-Brachialis. 

7. The Middle Portion of the 
Triceps Muscle. 

8. Its Inner Head. 

9. The Axillary Artery. 

10. The Brachial Artery. 

11. The Thoracica Acromialis 
Artery. 

12. The Superior and Inferior 
Thoracic Arteries. 

', 13. The Serratus Magnus Muscle. 
| 14. The Subscapular Artery. 
| 15. The Profunda Major Artery. 

16. The Profunda Minor. 
I 17. The Anastomotica. 
5 18. The Profunda Major inoscu- 
lating with the Radial Re- 
; current Artery. 



> 



FIG. 455. 





THE AXILLARY AND BRACHIAL ARTERIES, 



FIG. 455. 
A View of the Arteries on the Anterior 
Portion of the Arm and Shoulder. 

1. Axillary Artery. 

2. Thoracica Acromialis Artery. 

3. Thoracica Superior. 

4. Sub-Scapularis Branch. 

5. Inferior Scapulas. 

6.7. Branches to the Teres and Sub-Scapularis Muscles. 

8. Anterior Circumflex. 

9. Brachial Artery. 

10. Profunda Major Humeri. 

11. Posterior Circumflex. 

12. Main Trunk of the Profunda Major. 

13. Muscular Branches of the Brachial to the Biceps 
Muscle. 

14. Branches to the Brachialis Internus. 

15. Recurrens Ulnaris anastomosing with the Anas- 
tomotica of the Brachial. 



2. The Radial Artery. 

3. Recurrens Radialis. 

4. The Ulnar Artery. 

5. Recurrens Ulnaris. 

6. Interosseous Anterior Artery. 

7. Interosseous Posterior Artery. 



FIG. 456. 
The Anterior Surface of the Elbow-Joini 

with its Vessels. 
1. The Brachial Artery. \ 

Page 



FIG. 457. 

I A View of one of the Anomalies in the Ar- 
\ rangement of the Brachial Artery. It 
) here divides above the Elbow. 

I 1. Termination of the Axillary Artery. 
2. The Brachial Artery. 

3.3. Radial Artery. 

4.4. Ulnar Artery. 

5. A Recurrent Branch. 

6. Anterior Interosseous Artery. 

7. Superficial Palmar Arch formed bv the Ulnar Ar- 
tery. 

8. Deep-Seated Palmar Arch. 

9. The Anastomosis of the two Arteries, much en 
larged. 

145. 



FIG. 458. 



FIG. 460. 



FIG. 459. 




THE RADIAL AND ULNAR ARTERIES. 



FIG. 458. 
A View of the Arteries of the 
Lower Portion of the Su- 
perior Extremity, as seen 
after the removal of the 
Integuments. 

1. Lower part of the Brachial Ar- 
tery. 

2. Arteria Anastomotica. 

3. Aponeurotic Expansion of the 
Tendon of the Biceps. 

4. Recurrens Radialis Artery. 

5. Radial Art-ery. 

6. Muscular Branches. 

7. Superficialis Vote giving off a 
Branch to the Arcus Sublimis. 

8. The Tendons passing under the 
Annular Ligament of the Wrist- 
Joint. 

9. Branch of the Superficialis Volae 
on the Ball of the Thumb. 

10. Points to the Palmaris Pro- 
funda. 

11. Magna Pollicis Artery. 

12. Radialis Indicis. 

13. Cubito-Muscular Arteries. 

14. Lower part of the Ulnar Artery. 

15. Branches to the Palm and Mus- 
cles of the Little Finger. 

16. The Arcus Sublimus. 

17. Branches running to supply the 
Fingers. 

18. The Digital Arteries. 



9. 
10. 



12. 



FIG. 459. 

The Arteries of the Fore- 
Arm AFTER THE REMOVAL OF 
A PORTION OF THE MUSCLES. 

1. Lower part of the Brachial Ar- 
tery. 



Inter-Muscular Aponeurosis. 
Recurrens Radialis. 
Division of the Brachial into the 
Radial and Ulnar, as usually 
seen. 

Recurrens Ulnaris. 
Ulnar Artery. 
Radial Artery. 

Interosseous Anterior Artery. 
Dorsalis Carpi Artery. 
Magna Pollicis Artery. 
Arcus Profundus formed by the 
Palmaris Profundus and anas- 
tomosing with a Branch from 
the Arcus Sublimis. 
The Digital Arteries. 



FIG. 460. 

(I.) A View of the minute Di- 
visions of the Arcus Sqb- 
limis and its Branches. 

1. The Ulnar Artery at the 
lower portion of the Fore- 
Arm. 

2. Point where it passesbetween 
the Anterior Annular Liga- 
ment and the Aponeurosis 
Palmaris. 

3. Point where it reaches the 
Palm of the Hand. 
The Digital Branches which 
it gives off in the Palm of the 
Hand. 

Point of Anastomosis of its 
branch No. 8 witli the branch 
from the Arcus Profundus. 

11. The termination of the Radial 
Artery in sending a branch 
to the Thumb and Fore-Fin- 
ger. 

Page 143. 



4.5 
6.7 
8.9 
10 



;i 



12.12. Digito- Radial Branches of 
the Arcus Sublimis. 

13.13. Digito-Ulnar Branches of the 
same. 

14.14. Anastomosis and Capillary 
Terminations of these Arte- 
ries in the Pulps of the Fingers. 

15. The Radial Artery. 

16. Point where it passes to the 
back and outside of the Hand 
under the Extensor Tendons 
of the Thumb. 

17. Last Branch of the Radial 
Artery, called Radialis Indicis. 

18. End of the Arcus Profundus 
on the U lnar side of the Hand. 

19.20. Superficial MuscularBranches 
of the Radial at the Wrist. 

21.22. Superficialis Volae and Branch- 
es to the Ball of the Thumb. 

(2.) The minute Divisions of 
the Arcus Profundus and 
its Branches. 

1. Point where the Radial comes 
into the Palm of the Hand. 

2. Anastomosing Branch to give 
off. 

3. A Branch on the side of the 
Thumb. 

4. A Branch to the Fore-Finger. 

5. Anastomosis of theArcus Pro- 
fundus and a Digital Branch 
of the Ulnar. 

6. The Magna Pollicis Artery. 

7. 1 A succession of Interosseous 

8. I Branches which anastomose 

9. ! with the Digital Branches of 

10. I the Ulnar before their bifur- 

11. I cations to each finger. The 

12. J Anastomoses are in Arches 




FIG. 462. 




THE ABDOMINAL AOUTA 



FIG. 461. 
A View of the Aorta in its 
whole length, and of its 
Branches, as given by a sec- 
tion of the Anterior Parie- 
tes of the Trunk. 

1. Commencement and Arch of the 
Aorta. 

2. Thoracic Aorta. 

3. Abdominal Aorta. 

4. Arteria Innominata. 

5. Right Primitive Carotid. 

6. Superior Thyroid. 

7. Right Sub-Clavian. 

8. Vertebral. 

9. Inferior Thyroid. 

10. Anterior Cervical. 

11. Transverse Cervical. 

12. Superior Scapular. 

13. Superior Intercostal. 

14. Section of Internal Mammary. 

15. Left Primitive Carotid. 

16. Left Sub-Clavian. 

17. A small Artery to the Superior 
Mediastinum. 

18. Some of the Upper Intercostal 
Arteries. 



19. (Esophageal Arteries. 

20. Phrenic Arteries, here coming 
off from the Ccpliac. 

21. Remains of the Diaphragm and 
commencement of the Cceliac 
Artery. 

22. Tripod of Haller, or Division of! 
the Cceliac, into Hepatic, Gastric 
and Splenic Arteries. 

23. Superior Mesenteric, cut off. 

24. Emulgent Arteries. 

25. Inferior Mesenteric. 

26. Division of the Aorta into Iliacs. 

27. Middle Sacral— last Branch of ! 
the Aorta. 

28. Primitive Iliacs. 

29. External Iliacs. 

30. Epigastric Artery. 

31. Circumflexa Ilii. 

32. Internal Iliac Artery. 

33. Ileo-Lumbar. 

34. Lateral Sacral. 

35. Gluteal. 

36. Vesical Arteries. 

37. Obturator. 

38. Ischiatic. 

39. Internal Pudic. 



FIG. 462. 

A View of the Arteries of 

the Stomach and Liver. 

1.1. Crura of the Diaphragm. 

2. The Liver turned upwards. 

3. Its Left Lobe. 

4. Its Right Lobe. 

5. Lobulus Spigelii. 

6. Portae of the Liver. 

7. Ductus Choledochus 

8. Vena Portarum. 
9.10.11. The Stomach. 

12. The Duodenum. 

13. The Spleen. 

14. The Pancreas. 

15. The Great Omentum. 

16. The Small Intestines. 

17. Tripod of Haller. 

18. Abdominal Aorta. 

19. Phrenic Arteries. 

20. Coronary Artery of the Stomach. 

21. Splenic Artery. 

22. Gastric Artery. 

23. Hepatic Artery. 

24. Right Gastro-Epiploic Artery. 

25. Branches to the Greater Curva- 
ture of the Stomach. 

26. Branches to the Omentum Ma- 
jus. 

27. Main Trunk of the Hepatic 
dividing into Right and Left 
Branches, and giving off the 
Cystic Artery. 



Fage 147. 



FIG. 463. 



FIG. 464. 




THE MESENTERIC ARTERIES. » 



FIG. 463. j 

A View of the Distribution of the Superior \ 

Mesenteric Artery. i 

1. Descending portion of the Duodenum. 

2. The Transverse portion. 

3. The Pancreas. 

4. The Jejunum. 

5. The Ileum. 

6. The Ccecum. 

7. The Ascending Colon. 

8. The Transverse Colon. 

9. The commencement of the Descending Colon. 

10. The Superior Mesenteric Artery. 

11. The Colica Media. 

12. Anastomosis with the Colica Sinistra. 

13. Anastomosis with the Pancreatico-Duodenalis. 

14. Colica Dextra Artery. 

15. Ileo-Colic Artery. 

16. Branches of the Superior Mesenteric to the 
small Intestines. 

Page 



FIG. 464. 
The Distribution of the Inferior Mesente- 
ric Artery. 

1. Superior Mesenteric, with its Branches to the 
small Intestines turned back. 

2. The Ccecum. 

3. Ascending Colon. 

4. Transverse Colon. 

5. Descending Colon. 

6. Sigmoid Flexure. 

7. The Rectum. 

8. The Aorta. 

9. The Inferior Mesenteric Artery. 

10. Colica Sinistra. 

11. Colica Media anastomosing with the latter. 

12. Branches of the Inferior Mesenteric to the 
Sigmoid Flexure. 

13. Superior Hemorrhoidal. 

14. The Pancreas. 

15. Descending portion of the Duodenum. 

148. 



FIG. 465. 



FIG. 466. 





THE AORTA AND FEMORAL ARTERIES. 



FIG. 465. 

A View of the Abdominal Aorta and its 
Branches. 

1.1. The Diaphragm. 

2. Foramen Quadratum and Section of the 
Ascending Vena Cava. 

3. Foramen (Esophageum and Section of the 
CEsophagus. 

4. Foramen Aorticum in the Crura of the 
Diaphragm. The Phrenic Arteries are 
seen going to the Diaphragm. 

5. Capsulae Renales. 

6. The Kidneys. 

7. Abdominal Aorta. 

8. Phrenic Arteries. 

9. Coeliac — giving off. 

10. The Splenic. 

11. The Gastric. 

12. The Hepatic. 

13. Section of Superior Mesenteric. 

14. Emulgent Arteries. 

15. Spermatic Arteries. 

16. Inferior Mesenteric. 
17.17. Lumbar Arteries. 

18. Division of the Abdominal Aorta. 

19. Its last Branch — the Middle Sacral. 

20. Primitive lliacs. 

21. Ureters — in their Position to the Arteries. 

22. Internal lliacs. 

23. External lliacs. 

24. Circumflexa Ilii. 

25. Distribution of the Epigastric. 

26. Bladder distended with Urine. The Ve- 
sical Arteries are seen near it. 



FIG. 466. 

A Front View of the Femoral Artery, as 
well as of the external and primitive 
Iliacs of the Right Side. 

1. Primitive Iliac Artery. 

2. Internal Iliac Artery. 

3. External Iliac Artery. 

4. Epigastric Artery. 

5. Circumflexa Ilii Artery. 

6. Arteria Ad Cutem Abdominis. 

7. Commencement of the Femoral just un- 
der the Crural Arch. 

8. Point where it passes the Vastus Internus 
Muscle. 

9. Point where it leaves the Front of the 
Thigh to become Popliteal. 

10. Muscular Branch to the Psoas and Iliacus. 

11. External Pudic Artery cut off. 

12. Origin of the Internal Circumflex. 

13. Profunda Femoris. 

14. Muscular Branch. 

15.16. Artery to the Vastus Externns Muscle. 

17. Artery to the Pectineus and Adductors 

18. First Perforating Artery. 
19.19. Muscular Arteries. 
20.21. Anastomotica. 

22. Superior External Articular. 

23. Middle Articular. 

24. Inferior External Articular. 

25. Inferior Internal Articular. 



Page 149. 



FIG. 467. 





ARTERIES OF THE PERINEUM AND GROIN. 



FIG. 467. j 2. 

The Arteries in the Perineum of the Male, j 3. 

On the Right Side they are seen directly ^ 4. 

under the fascia, but on the left slde are £ 

under the muscles. { 5.6.7. 



1. Internal Pudic Artery between the two Sacro- 
Sciatic Ligaments. 

2. The same Artery between the Transversus 
Perinei and Erector Penis Muscles. 

3. Inferior Hemorrhoidal Artery. 

4. Superficial Arteries to the Fat around the 
Anus. 

5. The Perineal Artery. 

6.6. Urethro-Bulbar Artery. 

7.7. Branches of the same to the Corpus Spon- 
giosum. 

8.9. Branches to the Scrotum and Dartos. 

10. Cavernous Artery. 

11. Ramus Superficialis Dorsi Penis. 



FIG. 468. 
A View of the Arteries in the Groin of the 
Left Side in their relative Positions, the 
Inguinal Canal being opened. 

1. Aponeurosis of the Obliquus Externus Mus- 
cle. 

Page 150, 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 

15. 

16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 



Section of this Muscle. 
Its Tendon turned off and upwards. 
Its Tendon turned downwards and expos- 
ing the Inguinal Canal. 
Sub-Cutaneous Arteries. 
A Branch of the Ad Cutem Abdominis. 
Surface of the Obliquus Internus Muscle. 
Surface of the Transversalis Muscle. 
Section of the Fascia Transversalis. 
Branch of the Epigastric. 
Epigastric Artery. 

Muscular Arteries, Branches from the Epi- 
gastric and Circumflexa Ilii. 
Lower Edge of the Transversalis Muscle, 
giving off Fibres to form the Cremaster. 
Section of the Linea Alba. 
Rectus Abdominis Muscle. 
Spermatic Cord, entire. 
An Arteriole from the Epigastric. 
Another to the Fascia. 
End of the External Iliac Artery. 
The Femoral Artery. 
The Profunda Femoris. 
External Circumflex. 
A Branch to the Fascia Lata. 
External Pudic Artery. 



FIG. 469. 

-IS*. 'V - I L 



FIG. 470. 



FIG. 471. 




THE FEMORAL ARTERY. 



FIG. 469. 



The Arteries of the Pelvis 
and Thigh, as seen from the 
Inner Side, by a Vertical 
Section. 

1. Inferior Extremity of the Abdo- 
minal Aorta, just where it di- 
vides into the Iliac Arteries. 
Right Primitive Iliac. 
Right External Iliac. 
Origin of Epigastric Artery. 
Circumflexa Ilii. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 

16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 

25. 

26. 

27, 



28. 



Hypogastric or Internal Iliac 
Artery. 
Ileo Lumbar. 
Gluteal. 
Obturator. 
Lateral Sacral. 
Vesical Arteries cut off. 
Middle Hemorrhoidal. 
Internal Pudic. 
Ischiatic. 

Origin of the Femoral Artery 
at the Crural Arch. 
Point where it passes through 
the Adductor Muscles. 
Profunda Major. 
Internal Circumflex. 
First Perforatory Artery. 
Second Perforatory Artery. 
Third Perforatory Artery. 
Another Perforatory Artery. 
Femoral, seen in the Adductors. 
The Anastomotica of the Femo- 
ral. 

A Branch to the Sartorius Mus- 
cle. 

Popliteal Artery. 
The same Artery behind the 
Knee-joint under the Soleus 
Muscle. 

A Supernumerary Articular Ar- 
tery. 



29. Superior Internal Articular Ar- 
tery. 

30. Inferior Internal Articular Ar- 
tery. 

31. Anastomosis of these with Anas- 
tomotica. 



FIG. 470. 
A View of the Femoral Ar- 
tery, as it emerges from 
Poupart's Ligament. 

1. Adductor Brevis Muscle. 

2. Adductor Magnus. 

3. Obturator Externus Muscle. 

4. Femoral Artery. 

5. Profunda Femoris. 

6. External Circumflex Artery. 

7. Origin of Internal Circumflex 
Artery. 

8. First Perforating Artery. 

9. Another Branch to the Ad- 
ductor Muscles. 

10. The Obturator Artery. 



9 
|10, 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 

15. 

16. 
17. 

20 



FIG. 471. 
A View of the Arteries on 
the back of the thigh 
and Buttock, as well as 
on the back of the Ham. 

1. Gluteal Artery as it escapes 
from the Pelvis. 
2.3.4. Branches which it furnishes 
to the Gluteus Medius and 
Gluteus Minimus Muscles. 
5. Small Cutaneous Arteries given 
off by the posterior Branches 
of the Sacral Arteries. 

6.6. Internal Pudic from its exit from 
the Pelvis to the root of the 
Penis. 

7.7. Ischiatic Artery as it escapes 
from the Pelvis to its dis- 

Page 151. 



tribution to the head of the 
Biceps and Semi-Tendinous 
Muscles, as well as its Branckes 
to the Gemini, Pyriformis, and 
Quadratus Femoris Muscles. 
Termination and distribution of 
Internal Circumflex. 
Profunda Femoris seen in the 
thickness of the Adductors. 
A Branch to Adductor Longus 
and Brevis. 

First Perforating Artery, going 
to Vastus Externus. 
Second Perforating Artery. 
Third Perforating Artery. 
Termination of Profunda Fe- 
moris in the Biceps Muscle. 
A Branch to the short Head of 
the Biceps. - 
Popliteal Artery. 

18.19. Its Muscular Branches. 

21. Gastrocnemial Arteries. 



FIG. 472. 
A View of the distribution of 
the deep-seated external 
Branches of the Ischiatic 
Artery. 

1. Gluteus Minimus Muscle. 

2. Pyriformis. 

3. Lower one of the Gemini Mus- 
cles. 

4. Quadratus Femoris. 

5.6. Ischiatic Artery in its course 
outside the Pelvis to the Ro- 
tator Muscles. 

7. A Branch to the Capsular Liga- 
ment. 

8. Internal Pudic just after it leaves 
the Pelvis. 

9. Its position on the Ramus of 
the Ischium. 

10. Internal Circumflex Artery. 



FIG. 474. 



FIG. 475. 




FIG 473 





ARTERIES OF THE LEG 



FIG. 473. 

A View of the Arteries in the Popliteal 
Space. 

1. Popliteal Artery. 

2. Internal Gastrocnemial Artery. 

3. External Gastrocnemial Artery. 

4.5. Division of these Arteries in the Substance 
of the Muscle. 

FIG. 474. 

A View op the Anterior Tibial Artery and 
its Branches. 



1.1. 

2.2. 

3. 

4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8.8. 
9. 

10. 



The remains of the Extensor Proprius Polli- 
cis Pedis Muscle and Tendon. 
Superficial Branches from the Popliteal Ar- 
tery, known as Articular Arteries. 
Anterior Tibial Artery, as it comes through 
the Interosseous Ligament. 
The same Artery, on the middle of the Leg. 
Point where it passes under the Extensor 
Proprius Tendon and the Annular Ligament. 
Recurrent Branch. 

Branch to the Extensor Communis, Soleus 
and Peroneus Longus Muscles. 
Other Muscular Branches. 
Pedal Artery, or continuation of the Ante- 
rior Tibial on the Foot. 
External Malleolar Artery. 



FIG. 475. 

A View of the Arteries on the Back of the 
Leg. The Muscles have been removed so 
as to display the vessels in their whole 

LENGTH. 

1. The Popliteal Artery, cut off so as to 
show the Articular Arteries. 

2. Lower End of the same Artery on the 
Popliteus Muscle. 

3. Point of Bifurcation into the Posterior 
Tibial and Peroneal. 

4. Superior Internal Articular Artery- 

5. Superior External Articular Artery. 

6. Middle Articular Artery. 

7. Inferior Internal Articular Artery. 

8. Inferior External Articular Artery. 

9. Branch to the Head of the Soleus Mus- 
cle. 

10. Origin of the Anterior Tibial Artery. 

11. Origin of the Posterior Tibial Artery. 

12. Point where it passes behind the Annu- 
lar Ligament to become the Plantar. 

13.14.15. Muscular Branches. 

16. Origin of the Peroneal Artery. 

17.17. Muscular Branches. 

18.18. Anastomosis of the Posterior Tibial and 
Peroneal Arteries near the Heel. 

19. Muscular Branch from the Anterior Ti- 
bial. 



Fa=>r L52. 



FIG. 476 





FIG. 478. 









BRANCHES OF THE ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR TIEIAL ARTERIES. 



FIG. 476. 

The Superficial Arteries on 
the top of the foot. 

1 . Tibialis Amicus Muscle. 

2. Extensor Proprius Pollicia Pedis. 

3. Extensor Communis Tendon, cut 
off. 

4. Extensor Brevis Digitorum Pe- 
dis. 

5. Anterior Tibial Artery, between 
the Extensor Tendons. 

6. Some of its Muscular Branches. 

7. Internal Malleolar Artery. 

8. Lower portion of the Anterior 
Tibial Artery. 

9. Point where it sinks to anasto- 
mose with the Plantar. 

10.11. Two Malleolar Arteries. 
12.13. Muscular Branches of the 

Anterior Tibial on the Foot. 
14. Metatarsal Artery. 
15.16.17. Its Interosseal Branches 

and their distribution. 



FIG. 477. 

The Deep-seated Arteries on 
the top of the foot. 

1. Point where the Anterior Tibial 
comes on to the Foot. 

2. The same Artery on the Tarsal 
Bones. 

3. Point where it dips to the Plan- 
tar Arteries. 

4. Internal Malleolar Artery. 

5. External Malleolar Artery. 

6. A Branch to the Extensor Brevis 
Muscle. 

7. Branches of the Tarsal Artery. 

8. Branches to the Ligaments. 

9. Metatarsal Artery. 



10. Superior Branches of the Meta- 
Tarsal Artery. 

11. Interosseal Arteries. 

12. Posterior Perforating Branches 
of the Metatarsal. 

13. Plantar Interosseous Arteries, 
seen through the Metatarsus. 

14. Anterior Perforating Branches 
of the Metatarsal. 

15. Bifurcation of the Interosseal to 
give the Digital of the Toes. 

16. Dorsalis Hallucis. 

17. A Branch to the inside of the 
Great Toe. 

18. Bifurcation of the Dorsalis Hal- 
lucis. 

19. Its Perforating Branch. 
20.21.22. Distribution of the Digit- 
als of the Toes. 

23. Section of the Posterior Tibial. 

24. Branch of the Posterior Pero- 
neal Artery. 

FIG. 478. 
A View of the Arteries on 
the back of the leg and 
their continuation on to 
the Sole of the Foot. 

1.1. Tendons of the Flexor Com- 
munis and Flexor Longus Pol- 
licis Pedis. 

2. Tendon of the Peroneus Lon- 
gus. 

3. Posterior Tibial Artery at the 
Ankle. 

4.4. External and Internal Plantar 
Arteries. 

5. Point where it dips to form the 
Arcus Plantaris. 

6. Peroneal Artery. 

7. A Branch to anastomose with 
the Posterior Tibial. 

Page 153. 



8. Posterior Inferior Branch 
the Peroneal. 



of 



FIG. 479. 
The Deep-seated Branches of 
the Arteries on the Sole 
of the Foot. 

1. Posterior Tibial Artery by the 
side of the Astragalus. 

2. Branches to the Calcis. 

3. Branch of the Posterior Peroneal 
Artery. 

4. Bifurcation of the Posterior Ti- 
bial into the Internal and Exter- 
nal Plantar. 

5. Origin of the External Plantar 
Artery. 

6. Point where it forms the Plantar 
Arch. 

7. Anastomosis of the Anterior Ti- 
bial with the Plantar Arch. 

8.9.10. Muscular Branches of the 
External Plantar Artery. 

11. Anastomosis of this Artery with 
the Metatarsal. 

12.13. External Digital of the Little 
Toe. 

14. Digital Arteriesof theoiherToes. 

15.15. Theirdistributionon the Toes. 

16. Origin of the Internal Plantar 
Artery. 

17. Its anastomosis with the Arcus 
Plantaris. 

18.19.20. Muscular Branches of the 
Internal Plantar Artery. 

21 . Digital of the Big Toe, as formed 
by the anastomosis of the Inter- 
nal Plantar and Arcus Plantaris 

22. Sub - Articular Branch of the 
Great Toe. 

23. Anastomosis in the Pulp of the 
Toe. 



FIG. 480. 




ARTERIES AND VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK. 



FIG. 480. 
A Front View of the relative Positions of 
the Veins and Arteries of the Face and 
Neck. On the Right Side the Superficial 
Vessels are seen, and the Deep-seated 
ones on the Left. 

1. Primitive Carotid Arteries. 

2. Superior Thyroid Arteries. 

3. Internal Jugular Veins. 

4. External Jugular Veins. 

5. A Branch known as the Anterior Jugular 
Vein. 

G. Superior Thyroid Veins. 

7. Facial Arteries. 

8. Facial Veins. 

Pige 



9. Zygomatic Branch of the Facial Artery. 

10. Nasal Branch of the Facial Vein. 

11. Anastomosis of the Facial Artery and 
Vein with the Ophthalmic Artery. 

12. Venous Arch above the Nose. 

13. Frontal Vein. 

14. Temporal Vein. 

15. Temporal Artery. 

16. Frontal Branches of the Temporal Artery 
and Vein. 

17. Infra-Orbitar Vessels. 

18. Sub-Aponeurotic Branch of the Temporal 
Vein. 

19.20. Venous Anastomosis around the Eye-Lids. 
21. Frontal Branches of the Ophthalmic Ves- 
sels of Willis. 

154. 



FIG. 481. 



FIG. 482. 





THE VESSELS OF THE HEAD AND NECK. 



FIG. 481. 
A View of the Heart, with the Great Ves- 
sels of the Neck in Situ. 



9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 
15.15. 
16.16. 
17.17. 



18, 



19. 

20, 

21, 
22 
23, 
24, 



Right Ventricle of the Heart. 
Right Auricle. 
Left Ventricle. 
Left Auricle. 
Pulmonary Artery. 
Arch of the Aorta. 

Descending Vena Cava at its entrance 
into the Right Auricle. 
Ascending Vena Cava. 
Thoracic Aorta. 
Arteria Innominata. 
Right Brachio-Cephalic Vein. 
Left Brachio-Cephalic Vein. 
Section of the Sub-Clavian Artery. 
Section of the Sub-Clavian Vein. 
Primitive Carotid Arteries. 
Internal Jugular Veins. 
External Jugular Veins. Between these 
Veins is seen the Section of the Sterno- 
Cleido-Mastoid Muscle. 
The Trunk formed by the Superficial Cer- 
vical Veins, known sometimes as the An- 
terior Jugular Vein. 
A Branch from it to the Facial. 
Main Trunk from the Inferior Thyroid 
Veins. 

Superior Thyroid Vein. 
Transverse Cervical Artery and Vein. 
Lingual Artery and Vein. 
Facial Artery and Vein. 



FIG. 482. 

A Side View of the Superficial Arteries 
and Veins of the Face and Neck. 

1. External Jugular Vein, seen under the 
Platysma My odes Muscle. 

2. Anastomosing Branch from the Cephalic 
Vein of the Arm to the External Jugular. 

3. External Jugular after the removal of the 
Platysma Muscle. 

4. Communication of the External and Inter- 
nal Jugulars by means of the Facial Vein. 

5. Occipital Vein and Branches. 

6. Occipital Artery. 

7. Posterior Auricular Artery and Vein. 

8. Point where the External Jugular is formed 
by the union of the Temporal and Internal 
Maxillary Veins. 

9. Temporal Artery and Parietal Vein. 

10. Frontal Branches of the same: on the 
top of the Head are seen the Anastomoses 
of these Vessels with the Occipital. 

11. Internal Jugular Vein. 

12. Superior Thyroid Artery and Vein. 

13. Lingual Artery and Vein. 

14. Facial Artery. 

15. Point of its Anastomosis with the Nasal 
Branch of the Ophthalmic. 

16. Facial Vein separated from the Artery, ex- 
cept at its Origin and Termination. 

17. Inferior Coronary Artery and Vein. 

18. Superior Coronary Artery and Vein. 

19. Ascending Nasal Vein. 

20. Nasal Branches of the Ophthalmic Artery 
and Vein. 

21.22. Frontal Vein. 



Page 155. 



FIG. 483. 



FIG. 485. 



mx 




THE VERTEBRAL SINUSES. 



FIG. 483. 
A Longitudinal Section of the Skull and 
Spinal Column to show their Sinuses. 



1.1.1. 
2.2. 

3.3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10, 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16, 



The Vertebral Sinus in its whole length. 
Venous Trunks from the Bodies oi the 
Vertebrae, opening into the Vertebral Sinus. 
Foramen for the Vessels which connect the 
Internal and External Veins of the Spine. 
Anastomosis of the Petrous and Trans- 
verse Sinuses with the Vertebral. 
Superior Longitudinal Sinus of the Cere- 
brum. 

Inferior Longitudinal Sinus. 
Sinus Quartus, or Rectus. 
Torcular Herophili. 
Sub-Clavian Artery. 
Sub-Clavian Vein. 

Internal Mammary Artery between its 
two Veins. 
Inter-Costal Veins. 
Lumbar Veins. 

External Iliac Artery and Vein. 
Epigastric Artery and Vein. 
Circumflex Iliac Artery and Vein. 



FIG. 484. 
The Vertebral Sinuses seen in the whole 

LENGTH OF THE SPINAL CaNAL, BY CUTTING OFF \ 

the Spinous Processes of the Vertebrae. 



1.1. A succession of Sinuses, commencing ln- 
feriorly in the Sacral Canal. 

2.2. Circles formed throughout the Canal by the 
Veins which come out of the Vertebrae. 

3.3. Venous Branches which form the commu- 
nication of the Internal and External Veins 
of the Spinal Column by the Posterior Fo- 
ramina of the Sacrum, or by openings be- 
tween adjacent Vertebrae. 

FIG. 485. 

An Anterior View of the Vertebral Sinus- 
es, as shown by a Section of the Spinal 
Column, and the removal of the Bodies 
of the Vertebrae, and also of the Spinal 
Marrow. 

1.1. The Veins on the Posterior portions of the 
Vertebrae. 
2. The Transverse Veins of each individual 
Vertebra running to empty into 
3.3. The Main Trunks or Sinuses. 
4.4.5. The Openings of the Veins from the Fo- 
ramina on the Posterior Faces of the Ver- 
tebrae and the Plexuses of each Vertebra. 

6. The Sacral Veins. 

7. The Aorta. 

8. The Sub-Clavian Artery and Vein. 

9. The Carotid Artery. 

10. The Descending Vena Cava. 



Fagb 155 



FIG. 486. 




FIG. 487. 



FIG. 488. 





THE VEINS OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY. 



FIG. 486. 
The Superficial Veins on the Front or the 



Upper Extremity. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4.4 



9. 
10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
M. 
15. 

16. 

17. 
18. 



Axillary Artery. 
Axillary Vein. 

Basilic Vein where it enters the Axillary. 
. Portion of the Basilic Vein which passes under 
the Brachial Fascia — a portion of the Vein is freed 
from the Fascia. 

Point where the Median Basilic joins the Basilic 
Vein. 

Points to the Posterior Basilic Vein. 
Anterior Basilic Vein. 

Point where the Cephalic enters the Axillary Vein. 
A portion of the same Vein as seen under the 
Fascia ; the rest is freed from it. 
Point where the Median Cephalic enters the Ce- 
phalic Vein. 

Lower Portion of the Cephalic Vein. 
Median Cephalic Vein. 
Median Vein. 

Anastomosing Branch of the Deep and Superficial 
Veins of the Arm. 
Cephalica-Pollicis Vein. 
Sub-Cutaneous Veins of the Fingers. 
Sub-Cutaneous Palmar Veins. 



FIG. 487. 

The Veins of the Fore-Arm and bend of the 
Elbow. 

1. Lower part of Cephalic Vein. 

2. Upper part of Cephalic Vein. 

3. Anterior Basilic Vein. 

4. Posterior Basilic Vein. 



5. The Trunk formed by their union. 

6. The Basilic Vein piercing the deep Fascia at 7. 

8. The Median Vein. 

9. A communicating Branch between the deep Veins 
of the Fore-Arm and the upper part of the Median 
Vein. 

10. The Median Cephalic Vein. 

11. The Median Basilic. 

12. A slight convexity of the deep Fascia, formed by 
the Brachial Artery. 

13. The process of Fascia derived from the Tendon of 
the Biceps, and separating the Median Basilic 
Vein from the Brachial Artery. 

14. The External Cutaneous Nerve piercing the deep 
Fascia. 

15. The Internal Cutaneous Nerve dividing into 
Branches which pass in front of the Median- 
Basilic Vein. 

16. The Musculo- Cutaneous Nerve. 

17. The Spiral Cutaneous Nerve, a Branch of the 
Musculo- Spiral. 



FIG. 488. 

The Superficial Arch and Veins of the 
Hand. 

1. Cephalic Vein of the Thumb. 

2. The Anastomosis of Veins, whence it comes. 

3. A Branch of the Anastomosis of the Roots of the 
Cephalic Vein with those of the Hand. 

4. Superficial Veins from the Palmar Aponeurosis. 

5. Ulnar Artery, with its Venae Satellites. 
6.7. Its Vena? Satellites in the Superficial Arch. 

8. Digital Branches both of Arteries and Veins to 
the Fingers. 

9. Superficial Veins forming a net- work on the Fingers. 
10.11. Main Digital Vessels formed by their junction. 



Page 157. 




FIG. 490. 




THE VEINS OF THE TRUNK. 



FIG. 489. 
An Anterior View of the Great Veins op 
the Trunk. 



10. 
11. 



12. 

13. 

14. 
15. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 



Descending or Superior Vena Cava. 

Right and Left Brachic-Cephalic Veins. 

Sub-Clavian Veins. 

Internal Jugular Veins. 

External Jugular Veins. 

Inferior Thyroid Vein. 

Primitive Carotid Arteries, cut off below. 

Vena Azygos receiving the ten Intercostal 

Veins. 

Anastomosis of the Vena Azygos with the 

Ascending Vena Cava. 

Vena Hemi-Azygos. 

Trunk of the Vena Azygos after the junction 

of the Vena Hemi-Azygos ; above this it 

empties into the Descending Vena Cava. 

Superior Inter-Costal Veins emptying into the 

Vena Azygos and the Brachio-Cephalic Vein. 

Lumbar Arteries and Veins. 

Ascending Vena Cava. 

Emulgent Veins. 

Primitive Iliac Veins. 

Internal Iliac Veins. 

External Iliac Veins. 

External Iliac Arteries cut off. 



FIG. 490. 

A Posterior View of the Arteries and 
Veins of the Trunk, showing their rela- \ 
tive Positions. < 

1. The Aorta, cut off at its origin in the Heart. \ 



2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 

19. 

20.20. 
21. 

22. 



23. 

24. 
25. 
26. 

27. 
28. 
29 



The Descending Vena Cava, cut off at 
the Heart. 

Arteria Innominata. The Right Brachio- 
cephalic Vein is seen near it. 
Right Primitive Carotid. 
Right Internal Jugular Vein. 
Right External Jugular Vein. 
Occipital Artery and Vein. 
Sub-Clavian Artery and Vein. 
Vertebral Artery and Vein. 
Axillary Artery and Vein. 
Humeral Artery and Vein. 
Cephalic Vein of the Arm. 
Sub-Scapular Artery and Vein. 
External Mammary Artery and Vein. 
Scapular Artery and Vein. 
Great Vena Azygos. 
Smaller Vena Azygos, or Hemi-Azygos. 
Opening or Origin of the Vena Azygos in 
the Ascending Vena Cava. 
Point where the Vena Azygos enters the 
Descending Vena Cava. 
Inter-Costal Arteries and Veins. 
Lumbar Arteries and Veins. 
Anastomosing Branch of the Lumbar 
Vena Azygos and the Primitive Iliac 
Veins. 

Lower portion of the Thoracic Aorta. 
Emulgent Artery and Vein. 
Primitive Iliac Artery and Vein. 
Middle Sacral Artery and Vein. 
Gluteal Artery and Vein. 
Lateral Sacral Artery and Vein. 
Internal Pudic Artery and Vein. 



Pigs *sa 



FIG. 401 



FIG. 493. 




VENiE CAVJ] AND VEINS OF THE LEG- 



FIG. 491. i 

A View of the Veins of the Trunk and Neck. \ 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12.12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 

20. 

21. 



The Descending Vena Cava. 

The Left Vena Innominata. 

The Right Vena Innominata. 

The Right Sub-Clavian Vein. 

The Internal Jugular Vein. 

The External Jugular. 

The Anterior Jugular. 

The Inferior Vena Cava. 

The External Iliac Vein. 

The Internal Iliac Vein. 

The Primitive Iliac Veins. 

Lumbar Veins. 

The Right Spermatic Vein. 

The Left Spermatic Vein. 

The Right Emulgent Vein. 

The Trunk of the Hepatic Veins. 

The Vena Azygos. 

The Hemi-Azygos. 

A branch communicating with the 

Renal Vein. 

The Termination of the Hemi-Azygos in 

the Vena Azygos. 

The Superior Inter-Costal Vein. 



Left 



FIG. 492. 
An Enlarged View of the Vena Portarum. 

1. The Inferior Mesenteric Vein. 

2. The Pancreas. 

3. The Splenic Vein. 

4. The Spleen. 

5. The Gastric Veins, opening into the Splenic 
Vein. 

6. The Superior Mesenteric Vein. 



7. The Descending Portion of the Duodenum. 

8. Its Transverse Portion. 

9. The Vena Portarum. 

10. The Hepatic Artery. 

11. The Ductus Communis Choledochus. 

12. The Divisions of the Duct and Vessels at 
the Transverse Fissure of the Liver. 

13. The Cystic Duct. 



FIG. 493. 

The Arteries and Deep-seated Veins on the 
Back of the Leg. 

1. Popliteal Vein. 

2. Popliteal Artery. 

3.4. Vein and Artery in their relative Position on 
the Back of the Knee-Joint. 

5. Popliteal Vein on the inner side of the joint. 

6. Popliteal Artery without and beneath it. 

7. Extremity of Saphena Minor Vein. 

8.9. Internal Articular Vessels, both Arteries and 

Veins. 
10.11. External Articular Vessels, both Arteries 

and Veins. 

12. Junction of the Peroneal and PosteriorTibial 
Veins. 

13. A Venous Branch from the Anterior Tibial 
Vein. 

14. A Vein from the Gastrocnemius. 

15. Anterior Tibial Artery coming through the 
Interosseous Ligament. 

16. Posterior Tibial Artery. 

17. Its two Vena? Comites. 

18. Peroneal Artery. 

19. Its two Vena? Comites. 

20. Vessels on the Heel. 



Page 159. 



FIG. 494. 




7 •; IS 12 16 



FIG. 496. 



FIG. 495. 



FIG. 497. 





VEINS OF THE EXTREMITIES. 



FIG. 494. 

The Deep-seated Veins on the 
Front of the Upper Extremity 
in their relations to the ar- 
TERIES. 

1. Axillary Artery. 

2. Axillary Vein. 

3. Humeral Vein. 

4. Basilic Vein. 

5. Brachial Artery. 

6. The same Artery at the bend of 
the Arm. 

7. Median Basilic Vein. 
8.8. Cephalic Vein. 

9. Median Cephalic Vein. 

10. Radial Artery. 

11. Its two Venae Satellites. 
12.12. Ulnar Artery. 

13. Its two Venae Satellites. 

14. Recurrens Radialis Artery and 
Vein. 

15. Recurrens Ulnaris Artery and 
Vein. 

16. Interosseal Arteries and Veins. 

17. Palmar Arch and Digital Ves- 
sels, of which there is an en- 
larged View in Fig. 488. 



FIG. 495. 

A View of the Superficial Veins 
of the Thigh, as seen on its 
inner Side. 

1. Great Saphena Vein. 

2. Point where it traverses the Fas- 
cia to enter the Femoral Vein. 

3. Lower Femoral portion of the 
Saphena; in its whole course it 
is on the inner edge of the Sar- 
torius Muscle. 

4. A Collateral Branch of the Sa- 
phena. 

5.6. Anastomosing Branches. 

7. An Anastomosis which receives 

the Veins of the Leg just below 

the Knee. 



S 4. Internal Saphena at the Middle 

< of the Calf of the Leg. 

\ 5. Origin of the Saphena Vein at 

\ the Ankle-Joint. 

\ 6. Anastomosing Branch of the Sa- 

$ phena Major and Minor. 

5 7. Branches on the back of the Leg. 

\ 8. The Great Internal Vein of the 

I Foot. 

< 9. The Arch of Veins on the Meta- 
S Tarsal Bones. 

HO. A Branch from the Heel. 



FIG. 496. 

The Superficial Veins on the 
inner Side of the Legs. 

, The Saphena Major at the inside 
of the Knee. 

. A Collateral Branch of the Sa- 
phena Major on the Leg. 

. The Anastomosis of the Veins 
just below the Knee. 

Fage 160. 



I 11. Branches on the Sole of the Foot. 

FIG. 497. 
The Superficial Veins of the 
Front of the Leg. 

1. Saphena Major above the Leg. 

2. The same Vein on the inner Side 
of the Leg. 

3. A Transverse Branch below the 
Knee which receives all the Ve- 
nous Branches from the Front of 
the Leg. 

A Branch which Anastomoses 
with the Deep-seated Veins. 
The Great Vein on the inner Side 
of the Foot. 

The Arch formed by the Veins 
from the Meta-Tarsus. 



FIG. 498. 




FIG. 499 



FIG. 500. 




THE LYMPHATICS. 



FIG. 498. 
The Superficial Lymphatic Ves- 
sels of the Upper Extremity. 

1. Median Vein. 

2. Cephalic Vein. 

3. Posterior Basilic Vein. 

4. Median Cephalic. 

5. Cephalic Vein high up the Arm. 

6. Median Basilic Vein. 

7. Superficial Lymphatics of the 
Hand. 

S. Lymphatic Trunks from the in- 
side of the Hand. 
9.9. Principal Fasciculus of Lympha- , 
tics from the Front and Back of; 
the Fore- Arm. 

10. A Branch from the Superficial 
to the Deep Lymphatics of the 
Fore-Arm. 

11. An accidental Lymphatic Gland. 

12. Superficial Lymphatics which 
dip down with the Basilic Vein. , 

13. The Lymphatic Glands of the \ 
Axilla, which receive the Lym- 
phatic Vessels of the Arm. 



FIG. 499. 

A View of the Vessels and Lym- 
phatic Glands of the Axilla. 
1. The Axillary Artery. 



2. The Axillary Vein. 

3. The Brachial Artery. 

4. The Brachial Vein. 

5. The Primitive Carotid Artery. 

6. The Internal Jugular Vein. 

7. The Sub-Cutaneous Lympha- 
tics of the Arm at its Upper 
Part. 

8. Two or three of the most Infe- 
rior and Superficial Glands into 
which the Superficial Lympha- 
tics empty. 

9. The Deep-seated Lymphatics 
which accompany the Brachial 
Artery. 

10. The Lymphatics and Glands 
which accompany the Infra- 
Scapular Blood- Vessels. 

11. The Glands and Lymphatics ac- 
companying the Thoracica Lon- 
ga Artery. 

12. Deeper-seated Lymphatics. 

13. The Axillary Chain of Glands. 

14. The Acromial Branches of the 
Lymphatics. 

15. The Jugular Lymphatics and 
Glands. 

16.17. The Lymphatics which emp- 
ty into the Sub-Clavian Vein 
near its junction with the Right 
Internal Jugular Vein. 

Page 161. 



FIG. 500. 
A Front View of the Femoral 
Iliac and Aortic Lymphatic 
Vessels and Glands. 

1. Saphena Magna Vein. 

2. External Iliac Artery and Vein. 

3. Primitive Iliac Artery and Vein. 

4. The Aorta. 

5. Ascending Vena Cava. 

6.7. Lymphatics which are alongside 
of the Saphena Vein on the 
Thigh. 

8. Lower Set of Inguinal Lympha- 
tic Glands which receive these 
Vessels. 

9. Superior Set of Inguinal Lym- 
phatic Glands which receive 
these Vessels. 

10. The Chain of Lymphatics in 
Front of the External Iliac Ves- 
sels. 

11. Lymphatics which accompany 
the Circumflex Iliac Vessels. 

12. Lumbar and Aortic Lymphatics. 

13. Afferent Trunks of the Lumbar 
Glands, forming the Origin of 
the Thoracic Duct. 

14. Thoracic Duct at its commence- 
ment. 



FIG. 501. 



FIG 504 




THE LYMPHATICS, 



FIG. 501. 

A View of the Lymphatics of the 
Small Intestines of a Man dead 
from Ascites. 

1. Thoracic Duct. 

2. Section of the Aorta. 

3. Glands around the Aorta which 
receive the Lymphatics from the 
Intestine and give off Vessels to 
the Thoracic Duct. 

4. Superficial Lymphatics on the 
Intestine. 

5.5. More Lymphatic Glands receiv- 
ing Vessels from the Intestine. 

6.7. Lymphatics of the Intestine and 
Mesentery. 



FIG. 502. 

A View of the Course and Ter- 
mination of the Thoracic Duct. 

1. Arch of the Aorta. 

2. Thoracic Aorta. 

3. Abdominal Aorta. 

4. Arteria Innominata. 

5. Left Carotid. 

6. Left Sub-Clavian. 

7. Superior Cava. 

8. The two Venae Innominatae. 

9. The Internal Jugular and Sub- 
Clavian Vein at each side. 

10. The Vena Azygos. 

11. The Termination of the Vena 
Hemi- Azygos in the Vena Azy- 
gos. 

12. The Receptaculiim Chyli: se- 



veral Lymphatic Trunks are 
seen opening into it. 

13. The Thoracic Duct dividing, 
opposite the Middle Dorsal Ver- 
tebra, into two branches, which 
soon re-unite ; the course of the 
Duct behind the Arch of the 
Aorta and Left Sub-Clavian Ar- 
tery is shown by a Dotted Line. 

14. The Duct making its turn at the 
Root of the Neck and receiving 
several Lymphatic Trunks pre- 
vious to terminating in the Pos- 
terior Angle of the Junction 
of the Internal Jugular and Sub- 
Clavian Veins. 

15. The Termination of the Trunk 
of the Lymphatics of the Upper 
Extremity. 

FIG. 503. 

The Lymphatic Vessels and 
Glands of the Groin of the 
Right Side. 

1. Saphena Magna Vein. 

2. Veins on the Surface of the Ab- 
domen. 

3. External Pudic Vein. 

4. The Lymphatic Vessels collected 
in Fasciculi and accompanying 
the Saphena Vein on its inner side. 

5. The External Trunks of the same 
set of Vessels. 

6. The Lymphatic Gland which re- 
ceives all these Vessels. It is 
placed on the Termination of the 
Saphena Vein. 

Pace 162. 



7. The Efferent Trunks from this 
Gland; they become Deep-seated 
and accompany the Femoral Ar- 
tery. 

8. One of the more External Lym- 
phatic Glands of the Groin. 

9. A Chain of four or five Inguinal 
Glands, which receive the Lym- 
phatics from the Genitals, Abdo- 
men, and External Portion of the 
Thigh. 



1. 



FIG. 504. 

A View of the Superficial Lym 
phatics of the Thigh. 

The External or Saphena Minor 
Vein. 

The Venous Anastomosis be- 
low the Patella. 

Femoral Portion of the Saphena 
Major. 

Point where it enters the Femo- 
ral Vein. 

The Great Chain of Superficial 
Lymphatics on the inner side 
of the Thigh. 

A Chain of three or four Paral- 
lel Trunks, which accompany 
the Saphena-Major Vein. 

7. Branches from the Front of the 
Thigh. 

8. Branches from the Posterior 
Part. 

9.9. The Inguinal Glands into which 
the Superficial Lymphatics of 
the Lower Extremity enter. 



6.6. 



FIG. 505. 




FIG. 506. 



FIG. 508. 



FIG. 507. 





THE LYMPHATICS. 



FIG. 505. 

A View of the Lymphatics of the 
Jejunum and Mesentery, inject- 
ed : the Arteries are also in- 
jected. 

1. Section of the Jejunum. 

2. Section of the Mesentery. 

3. Branch of the Superior Mesenteric 
Artery. 

4. Branch of the Superior Mesenteric 
Vein. 

5. Mesenteric Glands receiving the 
Lymphatics of this Intestine. 



FIG. 506. 

A Front View of the D eep-seated 
Lymphatics of the Thigh. 

1. Lower End of the Aorta. 

2. Primitive Iliac Vein. 

3.4. External Iliac Artery and Vein. 

5. Femoral Artery. 

6. Section of the Femoral Vein. 

7. Vena Saphena on the Leg. 

8. Lymphatics near the Knee. 

9. Lymphatics accompanying the 
Femoral Vessels. 

10. Deep Lymphatics going from 
the inside of the Thigh to the 
Glands in the Groin. 



11. Lymphatics of the External Cir- 
cumflex Vessels. 

12. Lymphatics on the outer side of 
the Femoral Vessels. 

13. A Lymphatic Gland always 
found outside of the Vessels. 

14. A collection of Vessels and 
Glands from the Internal Iliac 
Vessels. 

15. The Lymphatics of the Primi- 
tive Iliac Vessels. 



FIG. 507. 

The Superficial Lymphatics of 
the inner side of the foot and 
Leg. 

1. The Venous Anastomosis on the 
Phalangial Ends of the Meta- 
Tarsal Bones. 

2. The Saphena Magna Vein. 

3. Lymphatics on the back of the 
Leg. 

4. The same Vessels on the lower 
part of the Thigh. 

5.5. Lymphatics coming from the 
Sole of the Foot. 

6.6. Lymphatics from the Dorsal 
Surface of the Foot. 

7. The Lymphatics which accom- 
pany the Saphena Vein. 

Pnge 163. 



8. Branches of Lymphatics from the 
Front and Outside of the Leg. 

9. Branches from the Posterior and 
Internal side of theCalf of the Leg. 

FIGT~508. 

The Deep-seated Lymphatic Ves- 
sels and Glands on the back of 
the Leg. 

1. Popliteal Artery. 

2. Popliteal Vein. 

3. Posterior Tibial Vessels : the 
Artery is between its two Veins. 

4. Peroneal Artery and Veins. 

5. Lymphatic Vessels from the 
Front of the Leg, coming through 
the Opening in the Interosseous 
Ligament. 

6. Deep-seated Lymphatic Vessels 
which arise in the Sole of the Foot 
and accompany the Blood-Ves- 
sels. 

7. Anastomosis of the Superficial 
and Deep-seated Lymphatics. 

8.9. Uniting Branches of Posterior 
Tibial Lymphatics. 

10.10. Popliteal Ganglions which re- 
ceive the Deep Lymphatics of 
the Leg and Foot. 

11.11. Efferent Popliteal Trunks 
which accompany the Blood-Ves- 
sels to the Femoral Ganglions. 



PART FIFTH. 



THE NEEVOUS SYSTEM 

AND 

THE SENSES: 

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SIX FIGURES. 



FIG. 509. 



FIG. 511. 



FIG. 510. 



Z&W 



THE MEDULLA SPINALIS. 



FIG. 509. 

An Anterior View of the Exter- 
nal Surface of the Dura Ma- 
ter of the Spinal Marrow and 
Brain. 

1. The portion of the Dura Mater 
Cerebri which is attached to the 
Crista Galli. 

2. The part covering the Anterior 
Fossae of the Cranium. 

3. A series of little Canals that it 
furnishes to the OlfactoryNerves. 

4. The Fibrous Sheath of the Optic 
Nerves. 

5. The Eye-Ball. 

6. The Dura-Mater at the Superior 
Face of the Sphenoid Bone. 

7. The same at the Sella Turcica. 

8. The portion which covers the 
Basilar Gutter. 

9. The part which passes through 
the Foramen Magnum to be 
continued on to that of the Me- 
dulla Spinalis. 

The Dura Mater at the Foramen 
Lacerum of the Sphenoid Bone. 

11. The 3d, 4th and 6th Pairs of 
Nerves, piercing the Dura Ma- 
ter to pass out of the Foramen 
Sphenoidale. 

The Dura Mater below the Ca- 
vernous Sinus. 
The Carotid Artery. 

\4. The Dura Mater at the Tempo- 
ral Fossa. 



10 



12 



13 



15. That on the sides of theCranium. 
16.17.18. Three Branches of the 

5th Pair of Nerves piercing the 

Dura Mater. 

19. The Facial and Auditory Nerves 
passing through their Canal. 

20. Enlargement for the Internal 
Jugular Vein. 

21. Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve. 

22. Pneumo- Gastric Nerve piercing 
the Dura Mater in front of the 
Enlargement for the Jugular 
Vein. 

23.23. The Fibrous Sheaths fur- 
nished to the Spinal Nerves by 
the Dura Mater of the Medulla 
Spinalis. 

24. The Bones of the Coccyx with 
the Processes of the Dura Mater 
inserted into them. 

25. The Anterior Face of the Dura 
Mater of the Medulla Spinalis. 



FIG. 510. 

An Anterior View of the Brain 
and Spinal Marrow, as ex- 
tracted from their Osseous 
Cavities. 

1.1. The Hemispheres of the Cere- 
brum. 

2. The Great Middle Fissure. 

3. The Cerebrum. 

4. The Olfactory Nerves. 

5. The Optic Nerves. 

6. The Corpora Albicantia. 



7. The Motor Oculi Nerves. 

8. The Pons Varolii. 

9. The Fourth Pair of Nerves. 
10. The lower ponion of the Me- 
dulla Oblongata. 

11.11. The Medulla Spinalis in its 
whole length. 

12.12. The Spinal Nerves. 
13. The Cauda Equina. 

FIG. 511. 

An Anterior View of the Spinal 
Marrow, Medulla Oblongata, 
&c, of a new-born Infant. 

1. The Pituitary Gland. 

2. The Infundibulum. 

3. The Optic Nerves. 

4. The Corpora Albicantia. 

5. Crura Cerebri. 

6. The triangular space between 
the Crura. 

7. Corpus Geniculatum Internum. 

8. Corpus Geniculatum Externum. 

9. Posterior portion of the Thalami 
Nervi Optici. 

10. Pons Varolii. 

11. Its Prolongation into the Crus 
Cerebelli. 

12. Eminentia Olivaria. 

13. Corpora Pyramidalia. 

14. Corpus Restiforme. 

15. Anterior Middle Fissure of the 
Spinal Marrow. 

16. Enlargement for the Origin of 
the Lumbar Nerves. 



Page 166. 



FIG. 512. 



FIG. 514. 





FIG. 515. 




THE MEDULLA SPINALIS. 



FIG. 512. 

A Lateral View op the Spi- 
nal Marrow, &c, op a new- 
born Infant, to show the 
Lateral Fasciculus, which 
is then more Apparent. 

1. Crura Cerebri. 
2.3.4. One of the Hemispheres of 
the Cerebellum. 

5. External Fasciculus of the Crus 
Cerebelli. 

6. Lobulus Amygdaloides and 
Nervi Pneumogastrici. 

7. Point where the Lateral Column 
of the Spinal Marrow enters 
the Cerebellum. 

8. Pons Varolii. 

9.10.11. Continuation of 7, or of the 
Lateral Fasciculus all the way 
down the Spinal Marrow. In 
the new-born Infant it is very 
nearly white, whilst the matter 
around is of a light grey. 

12. Eminentia Olivaria. 

13. Corpora Pyramidalia. 

14. Corpus Restiforme. 



FIG. 513. 

A Posterior View of the Me- 
dulla Spinalis, with the 



Fasciculi op the Corpora 
Restiformia cut off from 
each side of the Calamus 
Scriptorius. 

From the top of this section as far 
as the Lumbar portion of the Me- 
dulla Spinalis these posterior Fas- 
ciculi have been dissected out 
down to the Axis of the Medulla. 

1. The Pineal Gland. 

2. The Tubercula Quadrigemina. 

3. Origin of the 4th Pair of Nerves. 

4. The Valve of the Vieussens 
turned up a little. 

5. Posterior portion of the Crus 
Cerebri. 

6. Section of the Crus Cerebelli. 

7. Anterior portion of the Crus 
Cerebri. 

8. Section of the Corpus Resti- 
forme on one side. 

9. The Corpus Restiforme un- 
touched on the other side. 

10. A prominent Lateral Fasciculus 
on the Floor of the Calamus 
Scriptorius. 

11. Point of the Calamus. From 
its Point to the End of the 
Medulla Spinalis are seen the 
junctions of the Fasciculi of j 
each side, which make the Axis ; 
of the Medulla Spinalis. 

I 12. The Lateral Fasciculus. 



13. The enlargement for the Axil- 
lary Nerves. 

14. The enlargement for the Lum- 
bar Nerves. 



FIG. 514. 

An Anterior View of the Me- 
dulla Oblongata and of the 
Termination of the Decus- 
sation OF MlTISCHELLI. 

1. The Pons Varolii. 

2. The Eminentia Olivaria. 

3. The Corpus Pyramidale. 

4. The Corpus Restiforme. 

5. The Decussation of Mitischelli. 

6. The Anterior Columns of the 
Spinal Marrow. 

7. The Lateral Columns. 

FIG. 515. 

A View of a small portion o* 
the Spinal Marrow, show- 
ing the Origins of some of 
the Spinal Nerves. 

1. The Anterior or Motor Root of a 
Spinal Nerve. 

2. The Posterior or Sensory Root 
of a Spinal Nerve. 

3. The Ganglion connected with the 
latter. 



Page 167. 



FIG. 516. 



»J 



4 



t. 



v 




FIG. 517. 




FIG. 52D. 




K 



THE MEDULLA SPINALIS, 



FIG. 516. 

An Anterior View of the Spinal Marrow, 
seen in its whole length, after removal 
from the Spinal Canal. 

Lines indicating the Corpora Pyramidalia. 
Eminentia Olivaria. 
Anterior Face of the Spinal Marrow. 
Anterior Roots of the Cervical Spinal Nerves. 
Anterior Roots of the Dorsal Nerves. 
Anterior Roots of the Lumbar Nerves. 
Anterior Roots of the Sacral Nerves. 
10.11. The Anterior and Posterior Roots of the 
Spinal Nerves, united to pass out of the Dura Ma- 
ter. 

Dura Mater of the Medulla Spinalis. 
Ganglia on the Cervical Nerves. 
Ganglia on the Dorsal Nerves. 
Ganglia on the Lumbar Nerves. 
Ganglia on the Sacral Nerves. 
Cauda Equinoe. 
Sub- Occipital Nerve. 
Ligamentum Denticulatum. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8.9 



12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 



FIG. 517. 

A Posterior View of the same Spinal Mar- 
row. 

1. Inferior Extremity of the Medulla Oblongata. 

2. The Calamus Scriptorius. 

3. The Posterior Face of the Spinal Marrow, with 
the Middle Fissure. 

4.5.6.7. The Posterior Roots of the Cervical, Dorsal, 
Lumbar and Sacral Nerves. The other parts of 
this cut are the same as in Fig. 516. 



FIG. 518. 

A View of the Cervical Nerves of a Child 
of four Years of age, showing the Ante- 
rior Fissure laid open and the Suture-like 
appearance of the Anterior Commissure. 

1. The Sides of the Anterior Middle Fissure. 

2. The union of the two Halves, or the Anterior Com- 
missure of the Spinal Marrow. 



FIG. 519. 

A View of the Posterior Commissure of the 
same Subject. 

1. The Sides or Borders of the Posterior Fissure. 

2. The union of the two Sides at the bottom of the 
Fissure, or the Posterior Commissure. This is seen 
to be formed by Longitudinal Fibres, whilst the 
Anterior is by Transverse. 



FIG. 520. 

A Transverse Section of the Spinal Mar- 
row. 

1.1. The two Halves of the Spinal Marrow. 

2. The Anterior Middle Fissure. 

3. The Posterior Middle Fissure. 

4. The position of the Cineritous Matter to each 
Half of the Spinal Marrow. 

5. The Origin of one of the Anterior Roots of a 
Spinal Nerve. 

6. The Origin of one of the Posterior Roots. 



Page 168. 




FIG. 522. 




FIG. 523. 



FIG. 524. 





THE CEREBRAL SINUSES AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA. 



FIG. 521. 

A View of the Dura Mater of the 
Cranium and part of the Spi- 
nal Canal, with their Sinuses. 
1.2.3. A Section of the Bones com- 
posing the Vault of the Cranium, 
showing the arched attachment 
of the Falx Major. 

4. Anterior portion of the Superior 
Longitudinal Sinus. 

5. Its Middle Portion. 

6. Its Inferior Portion ; the outer 
table of the Cranium is removed. 

7. Commencement of the Inferior 
Longitudinal Sinus. 

8. Its Termination in the Straight 
Sinus. 

9. The Sinus Quartus or Rectus. 

10. The Verne Galeni. 

11. One of the Lateral Sinuses. 

12. The Torcular Herophili. 

13. The Sinus of the Falx Cerebelli. 

14. The Internal Jugular Vein. 

15. The Dura Mater of the Spinal 
Marrow. 

16. The Tentorium Cerebelli. 
17.17. The Falx Cerebri. 



FIG. 522. 

The Junction of the Sinuses of 
the Dura Mater, seen from ee- 
hind and laid open. 

1.1. A portion of the Dura Mater of 
the Superior Occipital Fossa. 

2.2. Portion of the Dura Mater of 
the Inferior Occipital Fossa. 

3. The Dura Mater from the Fo- 
ramen Magnum. 



4. Posterior Extremity of the Su- 
perior Longitudinal Sinus. 

5. Portions of the Lateral Sinuses, i 

6. Outline of the Lower Occipital I 
Sinus. > 

7. The Torcular Herophili. i 
8.9. The Openings into the Torcu- I 

lar Herophili. 



16. The Cavernous Sinus. 

17. The Circular Sinus around the 
Sella Turcica and opening into 
the Cavernous Sinus. 



FIG. 523. 

A Horizontal Section of the 
Cranium to show the Sinuses 
at its B ase : those on the Right 
Side are injected, those on the 
Left are empty. 

1. The Fossae for the Anterior 
Lobes of the Brain. 

2. The Fossa? for the Middle Lobes. 

3. The Fossae for the Posterior 
Lobes. 

4. The Basilar Gutter lined by the 
Dura Mater. 

5. The Optic Nerves. 

6. The Infundibulum. 

7. A Section of the Superior Lon- 
gitudinal Sinus. 

8. The Torcular Herophili. 

9. The Middle part of the Lateral 
Sinuses. 

10. The same Sinus at the Poste- 
rior Foramen Lacerum. 

11. One of the Occipital Sinuses, j 

12. The Superior Petrous Sinus. 

13. Its Anterior Extremity opening j 
into the Cavernous Sinus. 

I 14. The Inferior Petrous Sinus. 
', 15. The Sella Turcica of the Sphe- 
i noid Bone. 

Fage 169. 



FIG. 524. 

A Posterior Superior View of 
the Pons Varolii, the Cere- 
eellum, and the medulla ob- 
LONGATA and Spinalis. 

1.1. The Crura Cerebri. 

2. The Pons Varolii or Tuber 
Annularis. 

3. Its middle Fossa. 

4. An Oblique Band of Medullary 
Matter seen passing from its 
side. 

5. The External Surface of the 
Crus Cerebelli in its natural 
state. 

6. The same portion deprived of 
outer layer. 

7. The Nervous Matter which 
united it to 4. 

8. The Trigeminus or Fifth Pair 
of Nerves. 

9. Portion of the Auditory Nerve. 
The white Neurine is seen 
passing from the Oblique Band 
which comes from the Corpus 
Restiforme to the Trigeminus 
Nerve in front, and the Auditory 
Nerve behind. 

10.11. The Superior portion of the 
Hemispheres of the Cerebellum. 

12. Lobulus Amygdaloides. 

13. Corpus Olivare. 

14. Corpus Pyramidale. 

15. Medulla Spinalis. 



FIG. 525. 



FIG. 526. 





FIG. 528. 




THE CEREBELLUM. 



FIG. 525. 

A View of the Superior Face of 
the Cerebellum. 

1.1. The Circumference of the 
Cerebellum. 

2. The Space between its He- 
mispheres behind. 

3. One of the Hemispheres of; 
the Cerebellum, showing' the 
Laminae which compose it. 

4. The Vermis Superior. 

5. The Tubercula Quadrige- 
mina. 

6. Section of the Crura Cerebri. 

FIG. 526. 
A View of the Inferior Surface 
of the Cerebellum and a por- 
tion OF THE MeDULLaObLONGATA. 

1.1. The Circumference of the 
Cerebellum. 

The two Hemispheres of 
the Cerebellum. 

3. Lobulus Amygdaloides. 

4. The Vermis Inferior. 

5. Lobulus Nervi Pneumogas- 
trici. 

6. The Calamus Scriptorius. 

7. Its Point. 

8. Section of the Medulla Ob- 
longata. 

9. Points to the Origin of the 
Pneumocrastric Nerve. 



2.2. 



11 
12, 

13 

11 
15, 

16 



17 



Canal for the Corpus Pyra- 
midale. 

Canal for the Eminentia 
Olivaria. 

Canal for the Fasciculi of 
the Corpus Restiforme. 
The Seventh Pair of Nerves. 
The Auditory Nerve. 
The Roots of these Nerves 
united to the Floor of the 4th 
Ventricle. 

Medullary Layer to unite the 
Auditory Nerves to the Lo- 
bulus Amygdaloides. 

, These Lobules. 

, Medullary Matter by which 
the Auditory Nerves are con- 
nected with the Vermis In- 
ferior. 

The Vermis Inferior. 
The Striae running to the 
Lobulus Amygdaloides. 
Posterior Face of the Left 
Crus Cerebelli. 
External face of this Crus. 

15. The Expansion of the Fi- 
bres of the Crus Cerebelli. 
Left Corpus Rhomboideum 
laid open ; on the other side 
it is untouched. 
The Fissure between the He- 
mispheres of the Cerebellum. 



\ 3 



10 



FIG. 527. 

A View of the under side of The 
Cerebellum. The Pons Varolii 
is at the top of the Cut, and 
the Fasciculi of the Spinal 
Marrow which ran on to the 
Pons have been carefully de- 
tached. 

1. Pons Varolii. 



FIG. 528. 

A View of the Arbor Vit_e: and 
the Fundamental Portion of 
the Cerebellum, together 
with the Floor of the Fourth 
Ventricle. 

1. TheTuberculaQuadrigemina.i *<> 

2. The Superior Surface of the) 14 
Cerebellum. 

Page 170. 



11 



12 



13 



1 



Its Inferior Surface, and also 
the Arbor Vitae. In the Trunk 
of the Arbor Vitae are seen 
three Fasciculi running up to 
the Tubercula Quadrigemina. 
The most internal of these is 
A Fibrous Layer in which are 
collected all the Filaments 
which pass from the Parietes 
of the Aqueduct of Sylvius to 
the Vermis Inferior. 
Is the Fasciculus outside of 
the preceding, which runs 
from the Trunk of the Arbor 
Vitae behind the Tubercula 
Quadrigemina. 
Is that from which all the 
Fasciculi of the Vermis Su- 
perior pass to the Tubercula 
Quadrigemina. 
A very delicate Medullary 
Layer, which passes from 
the Anterior Surface of the 
Crus Cerebelli under the Ci- 
neritious Matter of the Cere- 
brum. 

The Anterior Extremity of the 
Fourth Ventricle, drawn back 
and leading to the Aqueduct 
of Sylvius. 

Middle Furrow on the Floor 
of the Fourth Ventricle. 
Tracts of Nervous Matter run- 
ning to the Auditory Nerve. 
Elevated portion of the same 
on the Floor of the Fourth 
Ventricle. 

Middle Fissure in the Cala- 
mus Scriptorius. 
Corpora Restiformia. 
Lateral portion of the Spinal 
Marrow. 



FIG. 529. 



FIG. 530. 





FIG. 531. 



FIG. 532. 





THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA AND CEREBELLUM, 



FIG. 529. 
A Posterior View of the Me- 
dulla Oblongata, as split 
open vertically on the mid- 
DLE Line. 

At the bottom of the Fissure is a 
succession of Fasciculi which inter- 
lock and cross from Right to Left. 
The Cerebellum has also been cut 
off from its Crura with great care, 
so as to show plainly the three prin- 
cipal elements in its composition. 

1. The ThalamiNerviOptici slight- j 
ly separated. 

2. The Corpora Geniculata. 

3. The Tubercula Quadrigemina. 

4. The Pineal Gland divided in the 
middle. 

5. The Aqueduct of Sylvius laid 
open. 

6. The Fasciculated portion of the 
Crura Cerebelli. 

7.8.9. The Internal, Middle and Ex- 
ternal Fasciculi of the Crura 
Cerebelli. 

10. Root of the Auditory Nerve. 

11. Corpus Restiforme. 

12. Posterior portion of the Corpus 
Pyramidale. 

13. Posterior Middle Fissure of the 
Spinal Marrow. 

14. Point of the Calamus Scripto- 
rius. 

15.15. Between these Figures is seen 
the interlocking of the two 
halves of the Medulla Oblongata. 



FIG. 530. 

A View of the Prolongation of 
the Anterior Fasciculus of 
the Crus Cerebelli into the 
Fibres of the Lobulus Amyg- 
daloides, &c, given by a ver- 
TICAL Section of the Cerebel- 
lum, AND TURNING IT BACK. 

1. The Arbor Vitae of the Vermis 
Superior. 

2. The Medullary Matter which 
passes from the Cortical sub- 
stance of the Cerebellum to the 
Tubercula Quadrigemina. 

3. Section of the Lobulus Amyg- 
daloides and Nervi Pneumogas- 
trici. 

4. The Internal Fasciculus of the 
Anterior portion of the Crus 
Cerebelli. 

5. Prolongations of this Fasciculus 
into the Lobulus Amygdaloides 
and Nervi Pneumogastrici. 

6. The Root of the Auditory 
Nerve which forms with the 
preceding parts a system of Fi- 
bres which envelope the Inter- 
Cerebellar Prolongations of the 
Corpus Restiforme. All these 
Fibres form the Parietes of the 
4th Ventricle and the Aqueduct 
of Sylvius. 

7. The Testes. 

8. Anterior extremity of the 4th 
Ventricle ; the Medullary streak 
just above the Line is the Valve 
of the Brain. 

9. The nervous tracts on the Ca- 
lamus Scriptorius. 

10. Lower portion of the Calamus. 
11.12. The Medulla Oblongata and 
Spinalis. 

Page 171. 



j FIG. 531. 

? In this Figure the External 

> PORTION OF THE CRUS CeRE- 

i belli has been removed so 

\ as to show the deeper-seat- 

l ed parts, as the prolonga- 

| tion of the auditory and 
Trigeminus Nerves into the 

\ Fundamental portion of 

i the Cerebellum. 

1. Expanding Fibres of the Crus Ce- 
| rebri. 

2. Posterior Surface of the Crus 
Cerebri. 

3. Trigeminus Nerve. 

4. Its Prolongation to the centre of 
the Cerebellum. 

5. Its Prolongation to the Corpus 
Restiforme. 

6. Auditory Nerve. 

7. Medullary Matter going from this 
Nerve to the Trigeminus. 

8. Doubling of the Fibres of the 
Laminae of the Cerebellum and 
their continuation to Fig. 7. 

9. Eminentia Olivaria. 



FIG. 532. 

A View of the Appearance of 
the Convolutions of one 
Side of the Cerebrum, as 
seen from above. 

1. The Anterior Lobe of the Cere- 
brum. 

2. Its Posterior Lobe. 

3. The Middle Lobe. 



FIG. 533. 




THE CEREBRUM. 



FIG. 533. 
A View of the Base of the Cerebrum and 
Cerebellum, together with their Nerves. 

1. Anterior Extremity of the Fissure of the 
Hemispheres of the Brain. 

2. Posterior Extremity of the same Fissure. 

3. The Anterior Lobes of the Cerebrum. 

4. Its Middle Lobe. 

5. The Fissure of Sylvius. 

6. The Posterior Lobe of the Cerebrum. 

7. The Point of the Infundibulum. 

8. Its Body. 

9. The Corpora Albicantia. 

10. Cineritious Matter. 

11. The Crura Cerebri. 

12. The Pons Varolii. 

13. The top of the Medulla Oblongata. 

14. Posterior Prolongation of the Pons Varolii. 

15. Middle of the Cerebellum. 

16. Anterior part of the Cerebellum. 

17. Its Posterior part and the Fissure of its He- 
mispheres. 

Page 



18. Superior part of the Medulla Spinalis. 

19. Middle Fissure of the Medulla Oblongata. 

20. The Corpus Pyramidale. 

21. The Corpus Restiforme. 

22. The Corpus Olivare. 

23. The Olfactory Nerve. 

24. Its Bulb. 

25. Its External Root. 

26. Its Middle Root. 

27. Its Internal Root. 

28. The Optic Nerve beyond the Chiasm. 

29. The Optic Nerve before the Chiasm. 

30. The Motor Oculi, or Third Pair of Nerves. 

31. The Fourth Pair, or Pathetic Nervps. 

32. The Fifth Pair, or Trigeminus Nerves. 

33. The Sixth Pair, or Motor Externus. 

34. The Facial Nerve. 

35. The Auditory — the two making the Seventh 
Pair. 

36.37.38. The Eighth Pair of Nerves. (The 
Ninth Pair are not here seen). 

172. 



FIG. 534. 



FIG. 535. 




THE CEREBRUM. 



FIG. 534. 
\ View of the Base op the Cerebrum after 
the removal of its mlddle and posterior 
Lobes, as well as of the Cerebellum. 

1. Superficial Intercrossing of the Anterior Cords 
of the Spinal Marrow. 

2. Corpora Pyramidalia. 

3. Eminentia Olivaria. 

4. Corpora Restiformia. 

5. External Surface of the Crura Cerebelli. 

6. Oblique Bands extending from the Corpora j 
Restiformia alongside of the Pons Varolii. 

7. The Pons Varolii. 

8. The Crura Cerebri. 

9. The Eminentia Mamillares. 
10. The Tract of the Optic Nerves. 

11.12. A perforated space near the Roots of the 
Optic Nerves, and diverging from these Nerves 
near their Chiasm. 

13. The Anterior Commissure shown by the rup- 
ture of the Cineritious Matter ; this is formed 
by the union of the Roots of these Nerves. 

14. The Internal Root of the Olfactory Nerve. 

Page 



15. Its Externa] Root coming from the Posterior 
Margin of the Anterior Lobe of the Cerebrum. 

16. The Bulb of the Olfactory Nerve. 

17. The Great Middle Fissure of the Cerebrum. 

18. The Anterior Lobes of the Cerebrum. 

19. The Middle Lobes of the Cerebrum. The 
rest of the Brain is wanting. 

FIG. 535. 
A View of the extent and shape of the Cor- 
pus Callosum as seen from above. On its 
outer side is seen the convergence of the 
Fibres of the Hemispheres. 
1. The Cerebellum. 
2.3.4. The Convolutions on the inner side of the 
Hemispheres. 

5. The Median Tract, or Raphe of the Corpus 
Callosum. 

6. Its Transverse Fibres. 

7. The Fibres curved inwards upon its outside. 

8. The Converging Fibres of the Hemispheres. 

9. The Concave Surface of the Hemispheres 
which overlaps the sides of the Corpus Cal- 
losum. 

10.10. Its Posterior Extremities. 

173. 



FIG. 536. 




THE CEREBRUM, 



FIG. 536. 

A View of the Connexions op the Cerebral 
Centre with the Hemispheres, in the Ex- 
pansion of the Diverging Fibres. 

The Cerebrum is lying upon its Convex or Up- 
per Surface, and has been divided Transversely 
throughout its substance, by a cut which,starting 
from the Base of the Olfactory Nerves, runs up- 
wards to the superior part of the Cerebrum at 
the Coronal Suture. 

1.1. The Medullary Matter of a Section of the 
Corpus Callosum. 

2.2. Medullary Matter on the outer side of the 
Corpora Striata. 

3.3. Medullary Matter running to the Septum Lu- 
cidum. 

4. The Point where this Matter unites to form 
the Septum. To the right and left of this 



10. External Face of the Cineritious Layer 
which envelopes the Corpora Striata. 

11. Marks the continuation of the Medullary 
Matter of 7, in the Corpus Striatum, into 
that of the Cerebral Hemisphere. 

12. The Medullary Matter of the Cerebrum, seen 
as continued from 11. 

13. Shows the Intercrossing of the Fibres of the 
Fibrous Layer of the Corpus Callosum with 
that of the Hemispheres. 

14.15. Show the continuation of the Medullary 
and Cineritious Striae of the Corpora Striata 
with that of the Hemispheres. 

16. Section of the Optic Nerves and their Ante- 
rior Gray Root. 

17. Portion of the Convolutions of the Cerebrum 
adjacent and above the Corpus Callosum. 

18. The Fissure of Sylvius. 

19. Chiasm of the Optic Nerves. 

20. The Infundibulum. 



is a black Crescent, marking the Cavity of I 21. The Optic Nerves, 
the Lateral Ventricles. 

5. The 5th Ventricle between the Layers of the 
Septum Lucidum. 

6. The Ventricular side of the Corpora Striata. 
.8. Medullary and Cineritious Fibres in the Cor- 
pora Striata. 

9. The Superior Face of the Corpus Callosum. 



22. Tuber Cinerium. 

23. Eminentia Mamillares. 

24. Crura Cerebri. 

25. Temporal portion of the Middle Lobes of the 
Cerebrum. 

26. Pons Varolii with the Oblique Fasciculi com- 
ing from the Corpora Restiformia. 



Page 174. 



FIG. 537. 





FIG. 540. 



FIG. 539. 





THE CEREBRUM. 



FIG. 537. 

A Section of the Head to show 
the Falx Major, Tentorium 
and other parts, found under 
the Median Line of the Head. 

1. Vertical Section of the Head. 

2. The Frontal Sinus. 

3. The Falx Major Cerebri. 

4. Its Origin from the Crista Galli. 

5. Its Attachment along the Sagit- 
tal Suture. 

6. The lower or concave Edge of 
the Falx. 

7. Its continuation to the Tento- 
rium. 

8. The Tentorium. 

9. Its Attachment to the Petrous 
portion of the Temporal Bone. 

10. The free Edge of the same part. 

11. The Convolutions of the Right 
Anterior Lobe of the Cerebrum. 

12. The Anterior Extremity of the 
Corpus Callosum. 

13. The Septum Lucidum. 

14. Section of the Anterior Com- 
missure. 

15. Anterior Crus of the Fornix. 

16. Middle of the Fornix. 

17. Its Posterior Extremity joining 
the Corpus Callosum. 

18. Internal side of the Thalami 
Nervi Optici. 

19. Section of the Corpora Striata. 

20. Lateral Parietes of the 3d Ven- 
tricle. 

21. A portion of the Dura Mater 
turned off. 

22. Section of the Internal Carotid 
Artery. 

FIG. 538. 

A Vertical Section of the Cor- 
pus Callosum through its mid- 
dle. The Left Internal Side 
of the Cerebrum is also shown. 
1.1. Section of the Corpus Callosum. 
2. The Septum Lucidum. 



Anterior Column of the Fornix. 
Section of the Anterior Com- 
missure. Another Figure 4 is 
seen in the convex Surface of ! 
the Thalami Nervi Optici. 
The Thickness or Central Sub- 
stance of the Thalamus. 
The Aqueduct of Sylvius. 
The Pineal Gland. 
A Medullary Band running 
from the Pineal Gland to the 
Anterior Commissure. 
Section of the Crus Cerebri. 
One of the Corpora Albicantia. 
The Tuber Cinereum. 
Section of the Chiasm of the 
Optic Nerves. 

The Optic Nerve beyond the 
Chiasm. 

The Olfactory Nerve. 
Anterior Surface of the Hemi- 
sphere. 

The Fissure between the Pos- 
terior and Middle Lobes of the 
Cerebrum. 



FIG. 539. 

The Mesial Surface of a Longi- 
tudinal Section of the Brain. 

1. The Inner Surface of the Left 
Hemisphere. 

2. The Divided Surface of the Ce- 
rebellum, showing the Arbor 
Vitae. 

3. The Medulla Oblongata. 

4. The Corpus Callosum. 

5. The Fornix. 

6. One of the Crura of the Fornix. 

7. One of the Corpora Albicantia. 

8. The Septum Lucidum. 

9. The Velum Interpositum. 

10. The Middle Commissure. 

11. The Anterior Commissure. 

12. The Posterior Commissure; the 
Commissure is somewhat above 
and to the left of the Number. 
The Space between 10 and 11 is 
the Foramen Commune Ante- 
Page 175. 



rius. The Space between 10 
and 12 is the Foramen Com- 
mune Posterius. 

13. The Corpora Quadrigemina. 

14. The Pineal Gland. 

15. The Aqueduct of Sylvius. 

16. The Fourth Ventricle. 

17. The Pons Varolii, through which 
are seen passing the Diverging 
Fibres of the Corpora Pyrami- 
dalia. 

18. The Crus Cerebri. 

19. The Tuber Cinereum, from 
which projects the Infundibulum, 
having the Pituitary Gland ap 
pended to its extremity. 

20. One of the Optic Nerves. 

21. The Left Olfactory Nerve. 



FIG. 540. 

A View of the Course of the An- 
terior Columns of the Spinal 
Marrow to their Termination 
in the Hemispherical Ganglia 
of the Cerebrum — after the 
Dissections of Gall. 

fThe Motor Tract traced out 
1.1. j from the Anterior Columns of 
1.1.1 the Spinal Cord to the Hemi- 

[ spherical Ganglion. 

2. Corpus Pyramidale. 

3. Eminentia Olivaria. 

4. Pons Varolii. 

5. Crus Cerebri. 

6. Corpus Striatum. 

7. Hemispherical Ganglion or Cine- 
ritious Neurine of the Cerebrum. 

8. The Cerebellum. 

9. The Olfactory Nerve. 

10. The Optic Nerve. 

11. The 4th Pair of Nerves. 

12. The Sensory Root of the 5th 
Pair. 

13. The 7th and 8th Pairs of Nerves. 

14. The Anterior Commissure. 

15. Eminentia Mamillaris. 

16. Corpus Geniculatum. 



FIG. 541. 



FIG. 542. 





FIG. 543. 




FIG. 544 




THE VENTRICLES OF THE BRAIN 



2. 
o 

4." 
5. 
6. 



FIG. 541. 

A View of the Connexions of the 

DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BRAIN 
BY MEANS OF THE COMMISSURES — 
AS GIVEN BY A VERTICAL SECTION. 

1. The Great Transverse Commis- 
sure or Corpus Callosum divided 
on its Middle Line. 
The Commissura Mollis. 
The Anterior Commissure. 
The Thalamus. 
Section of the Crus Cerebri. 
The Cineritious Matter in the 
Crus. 

7. The commencing Fibres of the 
Inferior Longitudinal Commis- 
sure or Fornix. 

8. Corpus Mamillare. 

9. The remains of the Corpus Stri- 
atum — the rest of it has been 
scraped away. 

10. The Septum Lucidum. 

11. Body of the Fornix or Centre 
of the Commissure. 

12. Taenia Hippocampi or Descend- 
ing Fibres of the Inferior Lon- 

fitudinal Commissure, 
ibres covering the Hippocam- 
pus Major. 

14. Fibres covering the Pes Hippo- 
campi. 

15. Fibres covering the Hippocam- 
pus Minor. 

It will be thus seen that the different 
portions of the Convoluted Surface 
of the Brain are connected together 
by this Inferior Longitudinal Com- 
missure, called the Fornix. 



FIG. 542. 

A View of the Lateral Ventri- 
cles of the Brain. 
The Hemisphere has been divided 
Vertically so as to lay open the La- 
teral Ventricle in its greatest extent. 
Another Section passing from the 
Fissure of Sylvius has opened the 
Lateral Ventricle on the External 



Limit of the Corpus Striatum and 
all the convexity of the Hemisphere 
has there been cut away, so as to 
open the Ventricle outwardly. 
1.1. "? Is the whole Cavity of the 
2.2.5 Ventricle. 
3.3. Convolutions on the under side 

or Base of the Brain. 
4. Points to the opening of the 

Fissure of Sylvius. 
5.5. The External Circumference 

of the Hemisphere. 

6. The Fissure separating the Pos- 
terior from the Middle Lobes 
of the Cerebrum. 

7. The bottom of this Fissure to- 
wards the Ventricle. 

8. The bottom of the Fissure of 
Sylvius. 

9. The Plexus Choroides. 

10. The Large Extremity of the 
Cornu Ammonis. 



FIG. 543. 

A View of the Superior Part of 
the Lateral Ventricles, Cor- 
pora Striata, Septum Lucidum, 
Fornix, &c, as given by a 
Transverse Section of the Ce- 
rebrum. 

1. Section of the Os Frontis. 

2. Section of the Os Occipitis. 

3. Section of the Ossa Parietalia. \ 
4.5. Anterior and Posterior Extre- < 

mities of the Middle Fissure of ! 
the Cerebrum. ' 

6. Anterior Extremity of the Cor- j 
pus Callosum. ; 

7. Its Posterior Extremity joining : 
the Fornix. 

8.8. Points to where the Corpus Cal- j 

losum joins the Lateral Medul- j 

lary Matter of the Cerebrum. ! 

9. Its Place of junction Anteriorly, j 

10. Posterior point of union. 

11. Middle portion of the Corpora j 
Striata (Lateral Ventricle). i 

12. Taenia Striata. 

13. The Septum Lucidum. 

Page 176. 



14. The Fifth Ventricle. 

15. The Fornix. 

16. Its Posterior Crura. 

17. The Plexus Choroides. 

18. The Ergot or Hippocampu3 
Minor. 

19. Posterior Crura of the Lateral 
Ventricle. 



FIG. 544. 

A Transverse Section of the 
Brain on a level with the La- 
teral Ventricles, in order to 
show the Fifth Ventricle and 
that portion of the fornix 
known as the lyra. 

1. Section of the Os Frontis. 

2. Section of the Ossa Parietalia. 

3. Section of the Os Occipitis. 

4. Anterior Lobes of the Cerebrum. 

5. Its Posterior Lobes. 

6. Anterior Extremity of the Great 
Middle Fissure. 

7. Its Posterior Extremity. 

8. The Centrum Ovale, or Medul- 
lary Matter of the Cerebrum. 

9. The Cortical or Cineritious Mat- 
ter. 

10. Section of the Anterior portion 
of the Corpus Callosum. 

11. Anterior Extremities of the La- 
teral Ventricles. 

12. Corpora Striata. 

13. The Sides of the Septum Luci- 
dum. 

14. The Cavity between its sides, or 
the 5th Ventricle. 

15. The Thalami Nervi Optici. 

16. The Taenia Striata. 

17. Section of the Anterior Crura 
of the Fornix, which is here 
turned backwards. 

18. Cavity of the 3d Ventricle. 

19. Lateral Portion of the Fornix. 

20. Its Posterior Crura. 

21. The Striae on its under Surface 
known as the Lyra. 

22. Posterior Cornu of the Lateral 
Ventricle. 



FIG. 545. 



FIG. 546. 





FIG. 547. 




THE CEREBRUM. 



FIG. 545. 

The Lateral Ventricles of 
the Cerebrum. 

1.1. The two Hemispheres cut down 
to a level with the Corpus Callo- 
sum, so as to show the Cen- 
trum Ovale Majus. The Sur- 
face is studded with the small 
Puncta Vasculosa. 

2. A small portion of the Anterior 
Extremity of the Corpus Callo- 
sum. 

3. Its Posterior Boundary ; the in- 
termediate portion, forming the 
Roof of the Lateral Ventricles, 
has been removed so as to com- 
pletely expose these Cavities. 

4. A part of the Septum Lucidum, 
showing a space between its 
Layers which is the 5th Ven- 
tricle. 

5. The Anterior Cornu of one side. 

6. The commencement of the Mid- 
dle Cornu. 

7. The Posterior Cornu. 

8. The Corpus Striatum of one 
Ventricle. 

9. The Taenia Striata. 

10. A small part of the Thalamus 
Opticus. 

11. The Plexus Choroides. 

12. The Fornix. 

13. The commencement of the Hip- 
pocampus Major in the Middle 
Cornu. The Rounded Oblong 
Body in the Posterior Cornu of 
the Lateral Ventricle, directly 
behind the Figure 13, is the Hip- 
pocampus Minor. A Bristle is 
seen in the Foramen of Munro. \ 



FIG. 546. 
A View of the Ventricles of 
the Brain, as given by a 
Transverse Section of the 
Cerebrum just above the 
top of the Lateral Ven- 
tricles and a Perpendicu- 
lar Section of the Cere- 
bellum. 

1. Section of the Os Frontis. 

2. Its Orbitar Plate. 

3. Anterior Lobes of the Cere- 
brum. 

4. Its Posterior Lobes. 

5. The Medullary or White Mat- 
ter of the Cerebrum. 

6. The Cineritious or Grey Matter. 

7. Anterior portion of the Middle 
Fissure of the Cerebrum. 

8. Section of the Anterior portion 
of the Corpus Callosum. 

9. The curved portion of the An- 
terior part of the Corpus Callo- 
sum placed between the Cor- 
pora Striata. 

10. Anterior portion of the Corpora 
Striata. 

11. Their Posterior Extremity. 

12. The Thalami Nervi Optici. 

13. The Taenia Striata. 

14. Section of the Anterior Crura 
of the Fornix. 

15. Anterior Extremity of the 3d 
Ventricle. 

16. Its Posterior Extremity. 

17. The Commissura Mollis. 

18. The Peduncles of the Pineal 
Gland. 

19. The Pineal Gland. 



<20, 

21. 

< 

22. 

c 

23. 



24, 

25. 



The Tubercula Quadrigemina. 
The Valve of Vieussens divided 
and turned on each side. 
Section of the Cerebellum and 
Arbor Vitas. 

The 4th Ventricle. — The dark 
middle Fissure which leads from 
the Fourth to the Third Ventri- 
cle under the Valve of Vieus- 
sens is the Aqueduct of Syl- 
vius. 

Lower portion of the Calamus 
Scriptorius. 

Extremity of the Medulla Spi- 
nalis. 



FIG. 547. 
A View of a Section of the 
Brain, showing the Motor 
Origin of the Fifth Pair of 
Nerves and the Origin of 
the Fourth Pair, with the 
Position of their Commis- 
sure. 

1. The Pineal Gland lying on the 
Tubercula Quadrigemina, just 
above the Nates. 

2. The Superior of the Tubercula 
Quadrigemina, or the Nates. 

3. The Inferior or Testes. 

4. The Motor Root of the 5th Pair 
of Nerves. 

5. The Thalamus Nervi Optici. 

6. The Sensory Root of the 5th 
Pair. 

7. The 4th Pair of Nerves. 

8. The 5th Pair of Nerves. 



Page 177. 




FIG. 518 



FIG. 551, 









THE ORGAN OF SMELLING, 



FIG. 548. 
A View of the Circle op Wil- 
lis. 

1. The Vertebral Arteries. 

2. The two Anterior Spinal 
Branches. 

3. One of the Posterior Spinal 
Arteries. 

4. The Posterior Meningeal Ar- 
tery. 

5. The Inferior Cerebelli Artery. 

6. The Basilar Artery. 

7. The Superior Cerebelli Artery, j 

8. The Posterior Cerebelli. 

9. The Posterior Communicans. 

10. The Internal Carotid. 

11. The Ophthalmic Artery. 

12. The Middle Cerebral Artery. 

13. The Anterior Cerebri. 

14. The Anterior Communicans. 



FIG. 549. 
A Side View of the Nose de- 
prived of its Epidermis in 
order to show the Sebace- 
ous Follicles of the Skin. 

1. Lower part of the Forehead. 

2. Root of the Nose. 

3. Its Point. 



Opening of theRight Nostril. 

The Lips. 

Ala of the Nose. 

The Side of the Nose and its 

Follicles. 

The same on its Front. 



FIG. 550. 

A View of the Cartilages of 
the Nose. 

1. The Nasal Bones. 

2. The Cartilaginous Septum. 

3. The Lateral Cartilages. 

4. The Alar Cartilages. 

5. The Central portions of the 
Alar Cartilages which con- 
stitute the Columns. 

6. The Appendices of the Alar 
Cartilage. 

7. The Nostrils. 

FIG. 551. 

A Side View of the Bones and 
Cartilages of the Nose, 
seen on the Right Side. 

1.1. An outline of the thickness 
of the Integuments. 
2. The Nasal Bone. 



3. The Lateral Cartilage. 

4. The External portion of the 
Cartilage of the Ala Nasi. 

5. The Internal portion of the 
same Cartilage. 

6. The Three small Cartilages 
which support the Ala Nasi. 
The Fibrous Tissue that holds 
them together. 



7. 



FIG. 552. 

An External View of the Na- 
sal Cartilages around the 

Nostril. 

1. The Outer Plate of one of the 
Oval Cartilages. 

2. Its Inner Plate. 

3. The Columnae Nasi. 

4. The small Cartilages of the 
Ala Nasi. 



I FIG. 553. 

> 

\ A PORTION OF THE PlTUlTARY 

> Membrane of the Nasal 

I Septum, Magnified 9 times, 

i and showing the Number, 

I Sizes and Arrangement of 

? the Mucous Crypts. 



Page 178. 



FIG. 554. 



Arpr^M 





FIG. 556. 



FIG. 557. 





THE ORGAN OF SMELLING. 



FIG. 554. 
A View of the External Parietes of the 

Left Nostril, as given by the removal of 

the Septum. 
1.2. Sections of the Cartilage of the Nose. 

3. The Hollow on the Inner Side of the Ala 
Nasi, with the Hairs and Mucous Follicles 
there found. 

4. The rounded Prominence where the Skin and 
Mucous Membrane unite. 

5. The Inferior Spongy Bone. 

6. The Middle Spongy Bone. 

7. The Superior Spongy Bone. 

8. An Excavation giving the appearance of a 
fourth Spongy Bone. 

9. The Inferior Meatus of the Nose. 

10. The Middle Meatus. 

11. The Superior Meatus. 

12. An Elongated Projection which separates the 
Nose from the Pharynx. 

13. The opening of the Eustachian Tube. 

14. Left half of the Velum Pendulum Palati. 



FIG. 556. 
A portion of the Pituitary Membrane with 
its Arteries and Veins injected — magni- 
fied 15 Diameters. 

The natural size of this piece is seen at the 
bottom of the Cut. 

1.1.1. The Orifices of Three Mucous Crypts sur- 
rounded by Veins and Arteries. 



FIG. 555. 

The Arteries of the Left Side of the Nasal 
Septum. 

1. The Posterior Ethmoidal Artery. 

2. The Anterior Ethmoidal Artery. 

3. Branches of the Spheno-Palatine Artery. 
4.5.6. The minute Anastomoses of the Branches 

of the Spheno-Palatine with the Ethmoidal Ar- 
tery, showing the Vascularity of this Surface. 



FIG. 557. 
A Vertical Section of the Middle part of 
the Nasal Fossje, giving a Posterior View 
of the Arrangement of the Ethmoidal 
Cells, &c. 

1. Anterior Fossae of the Cranium. 

2. The same covered by the Dura Mater. 

3. The Dura Mater turned up. 

4. The Crista Galli of the Ethmoid Bone. 

5. Its Cribriform Plate. 

6. Its Nasal Lamella. 

7. The Middle Spongy Bones. 

8. The Ethmoidal Cells. 

9. The Os Planum. 

1 0. Inferior Spongy Bone. 

11. The Vomer. 

12. Superior Maxillary Bone. 

13. Its union with the Ethmoid. 

14. Anterior Parietes of the Antrum Highmoria- 
num, covered by its Membrane. 

15. Its Fibrous Layer. 

16. Its Mucous Membrane. 

17. Palatine Process of the Superior Maxillary 
Bone. 

18. Roof of the Mouth, covered by the Mucous 
Membrane. 

19. Section of this Membrane. A Bristle is seen 
in the Orifice of the Antrum Highmorianum. 



Page 179. 



FIG. 558. 



FIG. 559. 





FIG. 560. 



FIG. 561. 




THE EYE 



FIG. 558. 
A Front View op the Left Eye — moderately 
Opened. 

1. The Supercilia. 

2. The Cilia of each Eye-Lid. 

3. The Inferior Palpebra. 

4. The Internal Canthus. 

5. The External Canthus. 

C. The Caruncula Lachrymalis. 

7. The Plica Semilunaris. 

8. The Eye-Ball. 

9. The Pupil. 



FIG. 559. 
A Side View op the same Eye, showing that 
the Cilia of the Upper Lid are Concave 
upwards, and those of the lower lld con- 

CAVE DOWNWARDS. The GENERAL CONVEXITY 

of the Eye-Ball is also seen. 



FIG. 560. 
A Posterior View of the Eye-Lids and Lach- i 
rymal Gland. \ 

1.1. The Orbicularis Palpebrarum Muscle. 
2. The Borders of the Lids. \ 

Page 



3. The Lachrymal Gland. 

4. Its Ducts opening in the Upper Lid. 

5. The Conjunctiva covering the Lids. 

6. The Puncta Lachrymalia. 

7. The Lachrymal Caruncle as seen from behind. 



FIG. 561. 

A Posterior View of the Eye-Lids— as seen 
undertheMicroscope,so asto show clearly 
the Glandule Palpebrarum. 

1.1. The Orbicularis Palpebrarum Muscle. 

2. The opening of the Lids, through which are 
seen the Cilia of the Upper Lid. 

3. The Levator Palpebrae Superioris Muscle. 

4. The openings of the Ducts of the Lachry- 
mal Gland. 

5. The Conjunctiva of the Eye-Lids. 

6. The Conjunctiva turned back so as to show 
the Glands which are beneath it. 

7. The Meibomian Glands of the Upper Eye- 
Lid, seen through the Conjunctiva. 

8. The same Glands of the Lower Lid. 

9. The Puncta Lachrymalia. 

180. 



FIG. 562. 



FIG. 563. 




FIG. 564. 




FIG. 565. 





THE EYE. 



FIG. 562. 

A View of the Shape and Position* op the 
Lachrymal Canals. 

1. The PunctaLachrymalia or openings of the Lachry- 
mal Canals in the Lids. 

2. The Cul-de-Sac at the Orbital end of the Canal. 

3. The course of each Canal to the Saccus Lachrymalis. 
4.5. The Saccus Lachrymalis. 

6. The Lower part of the Ductus ad Nasum. 

FIG. 5bU 

A View op the Muscles op the Eye-Ball, 
taken from the outer slde of the rlght 
Orbit. 

1. A small Fragment of the Sphenoid Bone around 
the entrance of the Optic Nerve into the Orbit. 

2. The Optic Nerve. 

3. The Globe of the Eye. 

4. The Levator Palpebrae Muscle. 

5. The Superior Oblique Muscle. 

6. Its Cartilaginous Pulley. 

7. Its Reflected Tendon. 

8. The Inferior Oblique Muscle ; a piece of its Bony 
Origin is broken off. 

9. The Superior Rectus Muscle. 

10. The Internal Rectus almost concealed by the Op- 
tic Nerve. 

1 1 . Part of the External Rectus showing s two Heads. 

12. The Extremity of the External Rectus at its In- 
sertion ; the intermediate portion of the Muscle 
having been removed. 

13. The Inferior Rectus Muscle. 

14. The Sclerotic Coat. 

A View of the Tensor Tarsi, or Muscle of Horner, 
has been already given — see Figure 172. 



FIG. 564. 
A Side View op the Eye-B^ll — entire. 

, The Middle of the Cornea. 

Its union with the Sclerotic Coat. 

The Sclerotica. 
5.6. The Tendons of the Recti Muscles, 

themselves in the Sclerotic Coat. 

Point where the Optic Nerve penetrates the Coals 

of the Eye-Ball. 

The Optic Nerve. 



osing 



FIG. 565. 

A Longitudinal Section op the Globe of the 
Eye. 



The Sclerotic Coat. 

The Cornea. 

The Choroid Coat. 

The Ciliary Ligament. 

The Ciliary Processes. 

The Iris. 

The Pupil. 

The Retina. 

The Canal of Petit, which encircles the Lens. 

The Anterior Chamber of the Eye, containing the 

Aqueous Humour. 

The Posterior Chamber. 

The Lens enclosed in its proper Capsule. 

The Vitreous Humour enclosed in the Hyaloid 

Membrane. 

A Tabular Sheath of the Hyaloid Membrane. 

The Neurilema of the Optic Nerve. 

The Arteria Centralis Retinae. 



Page 181. 



FIG. 566 




THE EYE BALL. 



FIG. 566. 
A Horizontal Section of the 
Eye-Ball. 

1. Sclerotic Coat. 

2. Sheath of the Optic Nerve, orCa- 
nal of Fontana. 

3. Circular Venous Sinus of the Iris. 

4. Proper Substance of the Cornea. 

5. Arachnoidea Oculi. 

6. Membrane of the Anterior Cham- 
ber of the Aqueous Humour. Of! 
the Two Dotted Lines one points 
to the supposed Membrane of De- 
scemet, the other to the supposed 
continuation of that Membrane 
over the Anterior Surface of the 
Iris. 

7. Choroid Coat. 

8. Annulus Albidus. 

9. Ciliary Ligament. 



10,10'. Ciliary Body, consisting of 
(10') a Pars non-Fimbriata, and 
(10) a Pars Fimbriata formed by 
the Ciliary Process. 

11. OraSerrataof the Ciliary Body. 

12. Iris. 

13. Pupil. 

14. Membrane of the Pigment. 

15. Delicate Membrane lining the 
Posterior Chamber of the Aque- 
ous Humour. 

16. Membrane of Jacob. 

17. The Optic Nerve surrounded by 
its Neurilema. 

17'. The Fibres of the Optic Nerve 
consisting of Fasciculi of Primi- 
tive Tubules. 

18. Central Artery of the Retina. 

19. Papilla Conica of the Optic 
Nerve. 

20. Retina. The situation of its Vas- 



1 

21 

22 

23 

<24 

25. 



26 

27. 

\ 28, 

I 29. 

^30. 

31. 



cular Layer is indicated by a 
Dotted Line. 

Central Transparent Point of the 
Retina. 

Vitreous Humour. 
The Hyaloid Membrane. 
Canalis Hyaloideus. 
Zonula Ciliaris. In the Plate, 
none of its Fimbriated part is 
seen, being concealed by the Ci- 
liary Processes. 
Canal of Petit. 
Crystalline Lens. 
Anterior Wall of the Capsule 
of the Lens. 

Posterior Wall of the Capsule 
of the Lens. 

Posterior Chamber of the Aque- 
ous Humour. 

Anterior Chamber of the Aque- 
ous Humour. 



Page 182. 



FIG. 567. 





FIG. 570. 




FIG. 568. 



FIG. 571. 





FIG. 572. 




THE EYE-BALL, 



FIG. 567. j 

The Anterior Segment of a Trans- i 
verse Section of the Globe of 
the Eye, seen from within. 



The divided Edge of the Three > 
Coats — the Sclerotic, Choroid 
and Retina. 
The Pupil. 

The Iris ; the surface presented 
to view in this Section being the 
Uvea. 

The Ciliary Processes. 
The Anterior Border of the Re- 
tina. 



FIG. 568. 

The Posterior Segment of a 
Transverse Section of the 
Globe of the Eye, seen from 
within. 

1. The divided Edge of the Three 
Coats — the Membrane covering 
the whole Internal Surface is the 
Retina. 

2. The Entrance of the Optic Nerve 
with the Arteria Centralis Retinae 
piercing its centre. 

3.3. The Ramifications of the Arte- 
ria Centralis. 

4. The Foramen of Sommering; the 
Shade from the sides of the Sec- 
tion obscures the Limbus Luteus 
which surrounds it. 



A Fold of the Retina, which ge- 
nerally obscures the Foramen of 
Sommering after the Eye has 
been opened. 



FIG. 569. 
A View of the Choroid Coat 
with its Vessels injected. 

1. The Optic Nerve. 

2. Posterior portion of the Sclero- 
tica, cut off circularly. 

3.4. The Ciliary Ligament. 

5. The Iris. 

6. Ciliary Nerves. 

7. Long and Short Arteries of 
the Choroid Coat. 

8. Long Internal Ciliary Arteries 
of the Choroid Coat. 

9.10. Vasa Vorticosa. 



FIG. 570. 

A View of the Veins of the 
Choroid Coat, as distend- 
ed by Blood. 

1. The Optic Nerve. 
2.3. Section of the Sclerotic Coat. 
4.5. The Circumference of the Iris. 

6. The Pupil. 

7. The Veins of the Choroid 
Coat. 

8.9. The Ciliary Nerves. 

Page 183. 



of 



FIG. 571. 

An Anterior View of the Iris 
as Attached to the Cho- 
roid Coat. 

1. The Choroid Coat. 
2.3. The Ciliary Ligament. 

4. The Great Circumference 
the Iris. 

5. The Anterior Face of the Iris. 

6. Its Lesser Circumference. 

7. Sho\ys the Striated or Ray-like 
appearance of the Iris. 

8. The Pupil. 

9. The Ciliary Nerves dividing as 
they penetrate the Ciliary Liga- 
ment. 

10.11. The Ciliary Blood- Vessels. 



FIG. 572. 

A Front View of the Retina, 
with the Lens in its Cap- 
sule. 

1.1. The Retina. 

2.2. Its Anterior Limits. 

3.3. The Lens in its Capsule. 

4. The Central Foramen of the 
Retina, seen through the Trans- 
parent Lens and Vitreous Hu- 
mour. 



FIG. 575. 



FIG. 573. 





FIG. 574. 




FIG. 576. 

$i nifl E3.ir; 




FIG. 577. 



FIG. 578. 



FIG. 579. 







THE EYE-BALL. 



FIG. 573. 

The External Face of the Re- 
tina, with the Lens attached 

to IT. 

1. The Retina. 

2. Its Central Foramen. 

3. The Optic Nerve deprived of its 
Sheath. 

4. The Ciliary Body. 

5. The distance of this Body from 
the Lens. 

6. The Lens in its Capsule. 



FIG. 574. 

A View of the Left Eye of a Foe- 
tus of Six Months, magnified 2 
Diameters — showing- the Ves- 
sels in the Conjunctiva. 

1.2.3.4. The Internal, Superior, Ex- 
ternal and Inferior parts of the 
Eye-Ball, with the Blood- Vessels 
injected. 

5. The Transparent Cornea. 



FIG. 576. 

A Segment of the Anterior Face 
of the Iris with its Vessels in- 
jected — magnified 25 Diame- 
ters. 

1.1. A portion of the Pupillary Cir- 
cumference of the Iris. 

2.2. A part of its Greater Circumfe- 
rence surrounded by a Branch 
of the Long Ciliary Artery. 

3. Part of the Lesser Circle of the 
Iris. 

4.4. Part of its Greater Circle. 

5.5. Three Arteries which are larger 
than the others, and coming 
from the Greater Circle are 
lost in the Iris. 

6. Smaller Arteries arising from 
these. 

7. Branches of the Larger Arte- 
ries, which are lost in the Small- 
er Circle of the Iris. 

An outline of the Natural Size 
of this piece is seen on the side of 
the Figure between 3 and 7. 



FIG. 575. 

A portion of the Retina of an 
Infant, with its Vessels inject- 
ed AND MAGNIFIED 25 DlAMETERS. 

An outline of the Natural Size of 
this piece is seen just below the 
main Cut. 



3. Filaments which unite the Cir- 
cumference of the Lens to the 
Ciliary Processes. 

4. The Hyaloid Membrane sur- 
rounding the Vitreous Humour. 

5. The Reflexions of this Mem- 
brane at the back of the Eye 
Ball. 

6. The Hyaloid Canal for the Ar- 
tery to the Lens. 

7. Its Posterior Orifice by which the 
Posterior Artery enters. 

8. The Canal of Petit around the 
Lens. 

FIG. 578. 

A Front View of the Crystal- 
line Humour or Lens, in the 
Adult. 



FIG. 577. 

A Side View of the Vitreous Hu- 
mour and Lens of a Fcetus at 
8 Months, showing the Shape 
and Direction of the Canal of 
Petit. 

1. The Lens. 

2. Its Anterior P'ace. 



FIG. 579. 
A Magnified View of the Lens 
of a fcetus of 8 months, seen 
on its Anterior Face, with the 
marks of its division into the 
Three Pieces that form it at 
that period. 



FIG. 580. 
A Side View of the Adult Lens. 

1. Its Anterior Face. 

2. Its Posterior Face. 
3.3. Its Circumference. 



Page 184 



FIG. 581. 




FIG. 582. 





THE EYE-BALL. 



FIG. 581. 

An Anterior View of the Choroid, Iris and 
Membrana Pupillaris of a Farrus of 7 
Months, highly injected and magnified 4 
Diameters. 

1.2. The Choroid Coat. 

3. The Ciliary Ligament. 

4. The Iris. 

5. The Membrana Pupillaris with its Vessels 
minutely injected. 

6.6. The Long Ciliary Arteries. 

7.7. The Vasa Vorticosa. 



FIG. 582. 

An Anterior View of the Iris and Membra- 
na Pupillaris of an Infant of 6$ Months, 
with their Vessels injected — highly mag- 
nified. 

1.1. The two Long Ciliary Arteries. 

2. The Circle around the Iris, formed by their 
Anastomosing Branches. 

3. Branches which arise from this Circle, and 
run in Front of the Iris. 



4. Anterior Face of the Iris. 

5. Extremities of the same Arteries, forming 
Arches between the two Layers of the Mem- 
brana Pupillaris. 

6. The Centre of the Membrana Pupillaris, 
usually free from Vessels, where the Mem- 
brane ruptures spontaneously. 

The Natural Size of this piece is seen on the 
side of the Cut. 

FIG. 583. 
A Posterior View of the same, also much 

MAGNIFIED, AND WITH THE MEMBRANA PuPIL- 

laris Ruptured. 
1.1. Long Ciliary Arteries. 

2. The Greater Arterial Circle of the Ins. 

3. The Posterior Face of the Iris covered with 
Pigmentum Nigrum. 

4. Flaps formed by the remains of the Pupil- 
lary Membrane. 

5. The Centre of the Pupil. 

The Natural Size of the piece is seen on its 
side. 



Fage 185. 



FIG. 584. 



FIG. 585. 



FIG. 580. 






FIG. 587. 



FIG. 589. 



FIG. 588. 




THE EXTERNAL EAR. 



FIG. 584. 
A View op the Left Ear in 
its Natural State. 

1.2. The origin and termination of 
the Helix. 

3. The Anti- Helix. 

4. The Anti-Tragus. 

5. The Tragus. 

6. The Lobus of the External Ear. 

7. Points to the Scapha, and is on 
the front and top of the Pinna. 

8. The Concha. 

9. The Meatus Auditorius Exter- 
num. 



prived of its Skin and show- 
ing HOW MUCH THE SHAPE OF 

the Ear is due to the Car- 
tilaginous Plate. 

1. A Fissure found in the lower front 
portion of the Helix. 

2. The Fissure found in the Tragus. 

3. The Fissure and Caudate Shape 
of the lower end of the Helix. 

These Fissures favour the Flexion 
of the different portions of the Car- 
tilaginous Plate of the External 
Ear. 



FIG. 585. FIG. 587. 

A View of the Sebaceous Fol- I The Cartilage of the Exter- 
licles of the External Ear. \ NAL Ear » with some of its 



They are rendered more ap- 
parent from Maceration. 



Muscles. 



FIG. 586. 
A View of the Cartilage of 

the External Ear,— de- < 7.8. The Anti-Tragicus Muscle. 



1.2. The Helicis Major Muscle on 
the front of the Helix. 

3.4. The Helicis Minor Muscle. 

5.6. The Tragicus Muscle on the 
front surface of the Tragus. 



FIG. 588. 

A View of the Inner Side of 
the Cartilage of the Ex- 
ternal Ear, or that next 
to the Cranium. 

1.2.3. The Transversus Auriculae 
Muscle in its usual position. 



1. 



FIG. 589. 

An Anterior View of the Ex- 
ternal Ear, as well as of 
the Meatus Auditorius, La- 
byrinth, &c. 

The Opening into the Ear at the 
bottom of the Concha. 
The Meatus Auditorius Externus 
or Cartilaginous Canal. 
The Membrana Tympani stretch- 
ed upon its Ring. 
The Malleus. 
The Stapes. 
The Labyrinth. 



Pago 186. 



/ 



FIG. 591. 



FIG. 592. 



FIG. 593. 






FIG 590. 



FIG. 594. 




FIG. 596. 





FIG. 595. 



FIG. 597. 




THE BONES OF THE EAR. 



FIG. 590. 

A View of the Laeyrinth and 
Tympanum of the Ear, with the 
Bones in Situ;highly magnified. 

1. Processus Longus of the Mal- 
leus. 

2. Its Processus Brevis. 

3. Its Manubrium. 

4. Its Neck. 

5. Its Head. 

6. Body of the Incus. 

7. Its Processus Brevis. 

8.8. Its Processus Longus, with the 
little head for articulating with 
the Stapes. 
9. The Head of the Stapes. 

10. Its Anterior Crus. 

11. Its Posterior Crus. 

12. Its Base. 

13.14.15. The first turn of the Coch- 
lea. 
16.17.18. Its second turn. 

19. Its half turn. 

20. The Cupola. 

21 . The Fenestra Rotunda. 
22.23. The Vestibule. 

24.25.26. Anterior Semicircular Ca- 
nal. 

27. Its junction with the Posterior 
Canal. 

28.29.30.31. The Posterior Semicir- 
cular Canal. 

32.33.34.35. The External Semicir- 
cular Canal. The Enlargements 
on these Canals are called Am- 
pullae. 



FIG. 591. 
A full View of the Malleus. 

1. Processus Longus. 

2. Processus Brevis, 

3. The Manubrium. 

4. The Neck. 

5. The Head of the Malleus ; near 
the Figure is seen a small Arti- 
culating Face for the Incus. 



2. 
3, 

4.4. 



FIG. 592. 

A View of the Incus. 

Its Body, with the Articular 
Face for the Convex Head of 
the Malleus. 

Its Short or Horizontal Process. 
Its Long or Perpendicular Pro- 
cess. 

The Head of this Process for 
articulating with the Head of 
the Stapes. It is also called 
the Orbiculare. 



FIG. 594. 

A Front View of the Stapes 

.2. The Head of the Stapes with 
its Articulating Face placed 
Obliquely. 

3. Its Neck. 

4. Its Anterior Crus. 

5. Its Posterior Crus more curved 
than the other. 

6. Its Base, the part which co- 
vers the Fenestra Ovalis. 



FIG. 595. 

A Magnified View of the Stapes 
from aeove, showing the Fe- 
nestrum in its base. 

1. Cartilaginous Articular Face, 
with the Orbiculare attached 
to it. 

2. Its Anterior Crus. 

3. Its Posterior Crus. 
4.4. Its Base slightly open. 



FIG. 593. 

A View of the Malleus, showing 
its Processus Brevis and the 
Articulating Face for the In- 
cus. 



FIG. 596. 

A Magnified View of the Cellu- 
lar Structure in the Centre 
of the Incus. 



{ 1. The Processus Brevis. 



FIG. 597. 

A Magnified View of the Inter- 
nal or Cellular Structure of 
the Malleus on the side of its 
Processus Brevis. 



Page 187. 



FIG. 598. 



FIG. 600. 




FIG. 599. 



FIG. 601. 





THE INTERNAL EAU, 



FIG. 598. 

A View of the Labyrinth of the Left Ear 
of a fcetus of 8 months, a3 seen from 
above. — Magnified 4 Diameters. 

1.2.3. The Cochlea. 
1.1. Its First Turn. 
•2.9. Its Second Turn. 
3.3. Its Third or Half Turn, and Apex or Cupola. 

4. The Foramen Rotundum. 

5. The Foramen Ovale. 

6. The Groove around it. 
7.7. The Vestibule. 

8.9.10. The Inferior Semicircular Canal, with its 

Ampulla at 8. j 

11.11. The Superior Semicircular Canal. 
12. The External Semicircular Canal. 

Page 



FIG. 599. 
An Outline, of the Natural Size, of Fig- 
ure 598. 



FIG. 600. 
A View of the Labyrinth of the Left Side 

LAID OPEN AND SHOWING ITS CONTENTS. 

This Figure has the same References as Fig. 
598, and is the same as it, except that the Ellip- 
tical Sacs and the Membranous Semicircular Ca- 
nals, &c, are seen within the Bony Cavity as 
shown in Fig. 602. 

FIG. 601. 
The Natural Size of Fig. 600. 

168. 



FIG. 602. 



FIG. 603. 




FIG. 604 




THE INTERNAL EAE 



FIG. 602. 

A View of the Labyrinth of 

the Left Side, laid open in 

its whole extent so as to 

show its Structure. These 



figures are all magnified. 



1 

2.2, 

3.3, 

4 
5 
6 



9, 
10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



The Thickness of the outer Co- 
vering of the Cochlea. 
The Scala Vestibuli or upper 
Layer of the Lamina Spiralis. 
The Scala Tympani or lower 
Layer of the Lamina Spiralis. 
The Hamulus Cochleae. 
Centre of the Infundibulum. 
The Foramen Rotundum com- 
municating with the Tympanum. 
The Thickness of the outer 
Layer of the Vestibule. 
The Foramen Rotundum. 
The Fenestra Ovalis. 
The Orifice of the Aqueduct of 
the Vestibule. 

The Inferior Semicircular Canal. 
The Superior do. do. 

The External do. do. 

The Ampulla of the Inferior 
Canal. 



15. The Ampulla of the Superior 
Canal. 

16. The common Orifice of the Su- 
perior and Inferior Canals. 

17. The Ampulla of the External 
Canal. 



FIG. 603. 
The Labyrinth of the Left 
Side, laid open throughout 
its whole extent, and sh ow- 
ing ON ITS LOWER HALF, MORE 

plainly thanthe preceding 
Figures, the Thickness of 
its different parts. 

1.2.3. The lower part of the Cochlea 
or the Scala Tympani. 

1.1. The First Turn or Layer, 

2.2. The Second Turn or Layer. 

3.3. The Half or Third Turn. 
4.5. The Inferior Half of the Ves- 
tibule. 

6. Is in the Fenestra Ovalis. 

7. The External Canal opening 
into the Vestibule. 

8.8. The Inferior Canal. > 

Page 189. 



9.9. The Superior Canal. 

10. Part of the Ampulla of the 
External Canal. 

11. The Union of the Superior 
and Inferior Canals. 



FIG. 604. 
A View of the Labyrinth in 

AN INVERTED POSITION, LAID 
OPEN SO AS TO SHOW THE DIS- 
TRIBUTION of the Nerves. 

1.2.3. The Cochlea laid open in its 
fullest extent, so as to show 
the Lamina Spiralis. The Fi- 
gures are placed on the Two 
Turns and a Half. 

4.5.6. The remains of the Parietes 
of the Cochlea. 
7.8. The Vestibule. 
9.10. Superior Canal. 

11.12. Inferior Canal. 

13. The External Canal. 

14.14. The Semicircular Membra- 
nous Canals. 

15.16.17. The Auditory Nerve in its 
course to the Labyrinth. 



FIG. 605. 



FIG. 606. 





FIG. 607. 




THE INTERNAL EAR. 



FIG. 605. 
A highly Magnified View of 
the External Face of the 
Bony Labyrinth of the Left 
Side, opened so as to expose 
the Vestibule and its Con- 
tents, &c. 

The difference of Colour in the 
shades of this Figure, is intended to 
assist in distinguishing the external 
from the internal faces of the La- 
byrinth, and also thecavities supposed 
to be occupied by the Liquor of Co- 
tunnius. 

1. The Ampulla of the Superior 
Semicircular Canal. 

2. The Ampulla of the External 
Canal. 

3. The Ampulla of the Inferior Ca- 
nal. 

4. The Superior Membranous Se- 
micircular Canal. 

5. External Membranous Canal. 

6. The Inferior Membranous Canal. 

7. The Spaces between the Bony 
and Membranous Semicircular 
Canals, thought to be occupied 
by the Liquor Cotunnii. 

8. The common Tube formed by 
the union of the Superior and In- 
ferior Membranous Canals. 



9. The place where the Internal Se- 
micircular Canal opens into the 
Sacculus Ellipticus of the Vesti- 
bule. 

10. The Sacculus Ellipticus contain- 
ing the Otoconie of Breschet, 
seen at 11. 

12. Sacculus Sphericus, containing 
also some Otoconie, as seen at 
13. 

14.15.16.17.18. The expansions of the 
Auditory Nerve to the Membra- 
nous Canals and the Sacculus 
Ellipticus, and also to the Sphe- 
ricus. 

19. The turns of the Lamina Spi- 
ralis. 

20. The Scala Tympani. 

21. The Nervous expansion to the 
Posterior Ampulla. 

22. The Scala Vestibuli. 

23. The Modiolus. 



FIG. 606. 
The soft parts of the Ves- 
tibule TAKEN OUT OF THEIR 

bony case, so as to show 
the distribution of the 
Nerves in the Ampulla. 
1. The Superior Semicircular Mem- 
branous Canal or Tube. 



The External Semicircular Tube. 

The Inferior Semicircular Tube. 

The Tube of union of the Supe- 
rior and Inferior Canals. 

. The Sacculus Ellipticus. 

. The Sacculus Sphericus. 

. The Portio Dura Nerve. 
The Anterior Fasciculus of the 
Auditory Nerve. 
The Nerve to the Sacculus Sphe- 
ricus. 

10. The Nervous Fasciculi to the 
Superior and External Ampullae. 
The Nerve to the Sacculus El- 
lipticus. 

The Posterior Fasciculus of the 
Auditory Nerve, furnishing 
The filaments to the Sacculus 
Sphericus, and 

The filaments to the Cochlea, 
cut off. 



FIG. 607. 
The Ampulla of the Exter- 
nal Semicircular Membra- 
nous Canal, showing the 
mode of termination of its 
Nerve. 



Fage 190. 



FIG. 608. 




FIG. 609 



FIG. 610. 





THE COCHLEA. 



FIG. 608. 

An imaginary Figure or Plan of the Coch- 
lea. 

This Figure is designed to show how the two 
Scalae of the Cochlea communicate in its Summit. 
The Parietes of the Scala Vestibuli are supposed 
to be removed. 

1.1. The Osseous portion of the Lamina Spi- 
ralis. Its small end is the Hamulus Cochleae. 

2.2. The dark ground here represents the Mem- 
branous portion of the Cochlea or the Zona 
Membranacea. 

3. The commencement of the Scala Tympani. 

4. Its External Edge. 

5. Its Internal Edge. 

6. Corresponds to the Modiolus around which 
the Lamina Spiralis is wound. 

7. Its Summit. 

8. The point of communication of the two 
Scalae. 



FIG. 609. 

A View of the Axis of the Cochlea and the 
Lamina Spiralis, showing the Arrange- 
ment of the three Zones. The Osseous 
Zone and the Membrane of the Vestibule 
have been removed. 

1. The natural size of the parts The other 
Figure is greatly magnified. 

2. Trunk of the Auditory Nerve. 

3. The distribution of its Filaments in the Zona 
Ossea. 

4. The Nervous Anastomosis in the Zona Vesi- 
cularis. 

5. The Zona Membranacea. 

6. The Osseous tissue of the Modiolus 

7. The opening between the two Scalae. 



FIG. 610. 

The Auditory Nerve taken out of the 

Cochlea. 
1.1.1. The Trunk of the Nerve. 

2.2. Its Filaments in the Zona Ossea of the 
Lamina Spiralis. 

3.3. Its Anastomoses in the Zona Vesicularis. 



Page 191. 



FIG. 611. 




FIG. 612. 



FIG. 613. 





THE COCHLEA 



FIG. 611. 



5.5. The doubling up of its external edge. 



a highly magnified vlew of a small piece of 
the Lamina Spiralis, showing the Globu- 
lar Structure of the Nerves and the man- 
ner in which they leave their Neurilema ( 
as they anastomose. 

The natural size of the piece is seen on the 
side of the Figure. 

1. Portion of the Auditory Nerve. 

2.2. Osseous Canals in the Zona Ossea of the 
Lamina Spiralis. 

3.3. Anastomoses in the Zona Mollis. 

4.4. The Neurilema leaving the Nervous Loops 
and interlocking to form the Layer of the 
Zona Membranacea. 

FIG. 612. 
A Vertical Section of the Cochlea, highly 
magnified to show the Arrangement and 
Connexion of its parts. 

1.1. The Trunk of the Auditory Nerve. 

2.2. Filaments of it in the Zona Ossea. 

3.3. Anastomoses in the Zona Vesicularis. 

4.4. Zona Membranacea. 



6.6. The Axis of the Cochlea. 
7. The Modiolus. 

8.8. Exterior osseous parietes of the Cochlea. 

9.9. The bony plates of the Lamina Spiralis. 

10. The Scala Tympani. 

11. The Scala Vestibuli. 

12. The Hamulus Cochleae. 

13. The Infundibulum. 

14. A Bristle passed through the course of the 
Lamina Spiralis. 

FIG. 613. 

A Magnified View of the Veins in the Inte- 
rior of the Cochlea, as given by a Verti- 
cal Section. The Arteries accompany 
the Veins. 

1.1. Veins accompanying the Auditory Nerve. 

2. The First Anastomosis on a line with the 
periphery of the Zona Ossea. 

3. The Second Anastomosis on a line with the 
periphery of the Zona Coriacea. 

4. The last Branches occupying the Zona Mem- 
branacea. 

5. The Venous Sinus in the periphery of the 
Zona Membranacea. 



Page 192. 



FIG. 614. 




FIG. 615. 



FIG. 616. 





THE NERVES. 



FIG. 614. 

A Vertical Section op the Head and Neck 

THROUGH THE MESIAL LlNE, IN ORDER TO 
SHOW THE OPENING OF THE EUSTACHIAN TUBE 
AND ITS RELATIONS TO THE PHARYNX. 



1. 

2. 

3, 
4, 
5 
6, 
7, 
8, 
9 
10 

11 



12 
13 
14 



Section of the Os Frontis. 
Section of the Os Occipitis. 
The Muscles on the back of the Neck. 
The Integuments on the Chin. 
The Frontal Sinus. 
The Middle Spongy Bone. 
The Inferior Spongy Bone. 
The Middle Meatus of the Nose. 
The Inferior Meatus of the Nose. 
Thickness of the Roof of the Mouth and 
Floor of the Nostril. 

Opening of the Eustachian Tube. A Cathe- 
ter is introduced in the Nostril and about to 
enter the Tube. 
Cartilaginous Nasal Septum. 
Genio-Glossus Muscle. 
The Soft Palate. 



3.4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 



9 
10, 

11 



FIG. 615. 
A View of the Origin and Distribution of 
the Portio Mollis of the Seventh Pair 
or Auditory Nerve. 

1. The Medulla Oblongata. 

2. The Pons Varolii. 



The Crura Cerebelli of the Right Side. 
The Eighth Pair of Nerves. 
The Ninth Pair. 

The Auditory Nerve distributed to the Coch- 
lea and Labyrinth. 
The Sixth Pair of Nerves. 
The Portio Dura of the Seventh Pair. 
The Fourth Pair. 
The Fifth Pair. 



FIG. 616. 

A View of the First Pair or Olfactory 
Nerves, with the Nasal Branches of the 
Fifth Pair. 

1. Frontal Sinus. 

2. Sphenoidal Sinus. 

3. Hard Palate. 

\ 4. Bulb of the Olfactory Nerve. 

i 5. Branches of the Olfactory Nerve on the Supe- 
rior and Middle Turbinated Bones. 

( c 6. Spheno- Palatine Nerves from the Second 
Branch of the Fifth Pair. 
7. Internal Nasal Nerve from the first Branch 
of the Fifth. 

> 8. Branches of 7 to the Schneiderian Membrane. 

< 9. Ganglion of Cloquet in the Foramen Incisi- 

? vum. 

5 10. Anastomosis of the Branches of the Fifth 

\ Pair on the Inferior Turbinated Bone. 



Page 193. 



FIG. 617. 



FIG. 618. 





FIG. 619. 



THE SECOND AND FIFTH l^AIRS OF NERVES. 



FIG. 617. 

A View of the Second Pair or 
Optic Nerves, with the origin 
of Seven other Pairs of Nerves. 



1.1. 



13 



Globe of the Eye ; the one on 
the Left Hand is perfect, but 
that on the Right has the Scle- 
rotic and Choroid Coats removed 
in order to show the Retina. 
The Chiasm of the OpticNerves. 
The Corpora Albicantia. 
The Infundibulum. 
The Pons Varolii. 
The Medulla Oblongata. 
The Third Pair, Motores Oculi. 
Fourth Pair, Pathetici. 
Fifth Pair, Trigemini. 
Sixth Pair, Motor Externus. 
Seventh Pair, Auditory and Fa- 
cial. 

Eighth Pair, Pneumogastric, 
Spinal Accessory and Glosso- 
pharyngeal. 
Ninth Pair, Hypoglossal. 



the Eye except the Superior Ob- 
lique and External Rectus. 

4. The Fourth Pair, or Pathetici, 
going to the Superior Oblique 
Muscle. 

5. One of the Branches of the Se- 
venth Pair. 

6. The Sixth Pair, or Motor Exter- 
nus, distributed to the External 
Rectus Muscle. 

7. Spheno - Palatine Ganglion and 
Branches. 

8. Ciliary Nerves from the Lenticu- 
lar Ganglion, the short Root of 
which is seen to connect it with 
the Third Pair. 



FIG. 618. 

A View of the Third, Fourth and 
Sixth Pairs of Nerves. 

1. Ball of the Eye and Rectus Ex- 
ternus Muscle. 

2. The Superior Maxilla. 

3. The Third Pair, or Motores Oculi, ; 
distributed to all the Muscles of; 



FIG. 619. 

A View of the Distribution of 
the Trifacial or Fifth Pair. 

1. Orbit. 

2. Antrum Highmorianum. 

3. Tongue. 

4. Lower Jaw- Bone. 

5. Root of the Fifth Pair, forming 
the Ganglion of Gasser. 

6. First Branch of the Fifth Pair, 
or Ophthalmic. 

7. Second Branch of the Fifth Pair, 
or Superior Maxillary. 

8. Third Branch of the Fifth Pair, 
or Inferior Maxillary. 

Page 194. 



> 9. Frontal Branch, dividing into 
i External and Internal Frontal 
\ Nerves. 

10. Lachrymal Branch of the Fifth 
Pair. 

11. Nasal Branch. Just under the 
Figure is the long Root of the 
Lenticular or Ciliary Ganglion 
and a few of the Ciliary Nerves. 

12. Internal Nasal Nerve, disappear- 
ing through the Anterior Eth- 
moidal Foramen. 

I 13. External Nasal Nerve. 

\ 14. External and Internal Frontal 

\ Nerve. 

| 15. Infra- Orbitary Nerve. 

16. Posterior Dental Branches. 
i 17. Middle Dental Branch. 
I 18. Anterior Dental Nerve. 
' 19. Terminating Branches of the 
Infra- Orbital Nerve, called the 
Labial and Palpebral Nerves. 

20. Subcutaneus Maize, or Orbitar 
Branch. 

21. Pterygoid, or Recurrent Nerve, 
from Meckel's Ganglion. 

22. Five Anterior Branches of the 
Third Branch of the Fifth Pair. 

23. Lingual Branch of the Fifth, 
joined by the Chorda Tympani. 

24. Inferior Dental Nerve. 

25. Its Mental Branches. 

26. Superficial Temporal Nerve. 

27. Auricular Branches. 

28. Mylo-Hyoid Branch. 



FIG. 620 



FIG. 621. 




THE FACIAL AND HYPO-GLOSSAL NERVES. 



FIG. 620. 

A View op the Facial Nerve, together with 
the Branches of the Cervical Plexus, &c. 

1. The Portio Dura or Facial Nerve escaping 
from the Stylo-Mastoid Foramen. The Pa- 
rotid Gland has been removed in order to 
show the Nerve more clearly. 

2. Its Posterior Auricular Branch. 

3. The Stylo-Hyoid Branch. 

4. The Pes Anserinus. 

5. Temporal Branches of the Facial Nerve. 

6. Malar Branches. 

7. Cervico-Facial Branches. 

8. Supra-Orbital Nerve. 

9. Sub-Cutaneus Malae, a branch of the Supe- 
rior Maxillary Nerve. 

10. The Infra-Orbital Nerve. 

11. Terminal Branches of the Inferior Dental 
Nerve. 

12. Nervus Auricularis of the Cervical Plexus. 

13. The Superficialis Colli Nerve. 

14. The Plexus formed between the Superficialis 
Colli and the branches of the Facial. 

15. The Occipalis Minor Branch, of the Cervical 
Plexus. 

16. Descending branches of the Cervical Plexus. 

17. The Phrenic Nerve. 

18. The Nervus Accessorius of the Eighth Pair. 

19. The Great or Posterior Occipital Nerve. 

Page 195. 



FIG. 621. 
The course and distribution or the Hypo- 
Glossal or Ninth Pair op Nerves. The 
deep-seated nerves of the neck are also 

SEEN. 

1. The Hypo-Glossal Nerve. 

2. Branches communicating with the Gustatory 
Nerve. 

3. A Branch to the origin of the Hyoid Muscles. 

4. The Descendens Noni Nerve. 

5. The Loop formed with the Branch from the 
Cervical Nerves. 

6. Muscular branches to the Depressor Muscles 
of the Larynx. 

7. A Filament from the Second Cervical Nerve, 
and 

8. A Filament from the Third Cervical, uniting 
to form the communicating branch with the 
Loop from the Descendens Noni. 

9. The Auricular Nerve. 

10. The Inferior Dental Nerve. 

11. Its Mylo-Hyoidean Branch. 

12. The Gustatory Nerve. 

13. The Chorda-Tympani passing to the Gusta- 
tory Nerve. 

14. The Chorda-Tympani leaving- the Gustatory 
Nerve to join the Sub-Maxillary Ganglion. 

15. The Sub-Maxillary Ganglion. 

16. Filaments of communication with the Lin- 
gual Nerve. 

17. The Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve. 

18. The Pneumo-Gastric or Par Vagum Nerve. 

19. The three upper Cervical Nerves. 

20. The four inferior Cervical Nerves. 

21. The First Dorsal Nerve. 
22.23. The Brachial Plexus. 
24.25. The Phrenic Nerve. 

26. The Carotid Artery. 

27. The Internal Jugular Vein. 



FIG. 622. 



FIG. 623. 



v^T, 





THE EIGHTH PAIR OF NERVES 



FIG. 622. 
A Plan of the origin and distribution of the 
Eighth Pair of Nerves. 

1. The Corpus Pyramidale of one side. 

2. The Pons Varolii. 

3. The Corpus Olivare. 

4. The Corpus Restiforme. 

5. The Facial Nerve. 

6. The origin of the Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve. 

7. The Ganglionum Petrosurn. 

8. The Trunk of the Nerve. 

9. The Spinal Accessory Nerve. 

10. The Ganglion of the Pneumogastric Nerve. 

11. Its Plexiform Ganglion. 

12. Its Trunk. 

13. Its Pharyngeal Branch, forming (14) the Pharyn- 
geal Plexus, assisted by a branch from the Glosso- 
pharyngeal (8), and one from (15) the Superior La- 
ryngeal Nerve. 

16. Cardiac Branches. 

17. Recurrent Laryngeal Branch. 

18. Anterior Pulmonary Branches. 

19. Posterior Pulmonary Branches. 

20. (Esophageal Plexus. 

21. Gastric Branches. 

22. Origin of the Spinal Accessory Nerve. 

23. Branches to the Sterno- Mastoid Muscle. 

24. Branches to the Trapezius Muscle. 



FIG. 623. 

A View of the distribution of the Glosso- 
pharyngeal Pneumo-Gastric and Spinal 
Accessory Nerves, or the Eighth Pair. 

1. The Inferior Maxillary Nerve. 

2. The Gustatory Nerve. 

3. The Chorda-Tympani. 

4. The Auricular Nerve. 

5. Its communication with the Portio Dura. 

6. The Facial Nerve coming out of the Stylo-Mas- 
toid Foramen. 

7. The Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve. 

8. Branches to the Stylo-Pharyngeus Muscle. 

9. The Pharyngeal Branch of the Pneumo-Gastric 
Nerve descending to form the Pharyngeal Plexus. 

10. Branches of the Glosso-Pharyngeal to the Pha- 
ryngeal Plexus. 

11. The Pneumo-Gastric Nerve. 

12. The Pharyngeal Plexus. 

13. The Superior Laryngeal Branch. 

14. Branches to the Pharyngeal Plexus. 

15.15. Communication of the Superior and Inferior 
Laryngeal Nerves. 

16. Cardiac Branches. 

17. Cardiac Branches from the Right Pneumo-Gastric 
Nerve. 

18. The Left Cardiac Ganglion and Plexus. 

19. The Recurrent or Inferior Laryngeal Nerve. 

20. Branches sent from the curve of the Recurrent 
Nerve to the Pulmonary Plexus. 

21. The Anterior Pulmonary Plexus. 
22.22. The (Esophageal Plexus. 



Page 196. 



FIG. 624. 




THE GREAT SYMPATHETIC NERVE 



FIG. 624. 
A View of the Great Sympathetic Nerve. 



9, 
10, 
11, 
12, 

13, 



The Plexus on the Carotid Artery in the Ca- 
rotid Foramen. 

Sixth Nerve (Motor Extemus). 
First Branch of the Fifth or Ophthalmic Nerve. 
A Branch on the Septum Narium going to the 
Incisive Foramen. 

The Recurrent Branch or Vidian Nerve divid- 
ing into the Carotid and Petrosal Branches. 
Posterior Palatine Branches. 
The Lingual Nerv« joined by the Corda Tym- 
pani. 

The Portio Dura of the Seventh Pair or the 
Facial Nerve. 

The Superior Cervical Ganglion. 
The Middle Cervical Ganglion. 
The Inferior Cervical Ganglion. 
The Roots of the Great Splanchnic Nerve 
arising from the Dorsal Ganglia. 
The Lesser Splanchnic Nerve. 



14. The Renal Plexus. 

15. The Solar Plexus. 

16. The Mesenteric Plexus. 

17. The Lumbar Ganglia. 

18. The Sacral Ganglia. 

19. The Vesical Plexus. 

20. The Rectal Plexus. 

21. The Lumbar Plexus (Cerebro-Spinal). 

22. The Rectum. 

23. The Bladder. 

24. The Pubis. 

25. The Crest of the Ilium. 

26. The Kidney. 

27. The Aorta. 

28. The Diaphragm. 

29. The Heart. 

30. The Larynx. 

31. The Sub-Maxillary Gland. 

32. The Incisor Teeth. 

33. Nasal Septum. 

34. Globe of the Eye. 
35.36. Cavity of the Cranium. 



Page 197. 



KIG. 625 



FIG. 626 




NERVES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY. 



FIG. 625. 
A View op the Brachial Plexus of Nerves 
and its Branches to the Arm. 

1.1. The Scalenus Anticus Muscle. 

2.2. The Median Nerve. 

3. The Ulnar Nerve. 

4. The Branch to the Biceps Muscle. 

5. The Thoracic Nerves. 

6. The Phrenic Nerve, from the Third and 
Fourth Cervical. 



4. Division of the Median Nerve in the Palm to 
the Thumb, First, Second and Radial side of 
the Third Finger. 

5. Division of the Ulnar Nerve to the Ulnar 
side of the Third and both sides of the Fourth 
Finder. 



FIG. 626. 
A View of the Nerves on the front of the 
Fore- Arm. 

1. The Median Nerve. 

2. Anterior Branch of the Musculo-Spiral or 
Radial Nerve. 

3. The Ulnar Nerve. 



FIG. 627. 

A View of the Nerves on the Back of the 
Fore-Arm and Hand. 

1.1. The Ulnar Nerve. 

2.2. The Ramus Profundus Dorsalis Nerve. 

I 3. Termination of the Nervus Cutaneus Hu- 

\ meri. 

I 4. The Dorsalis Carpi, a Branch of the Radial 

Nerve. 
\ 5.5. A back view of the Digital Nerves. 
\ 6. Dorsal Branch of the Ulnar Nerve. 



Page 198. 



FIG. 628. 



FIG. 629. 





FIG. 630. 




NERVES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY. 



FIG. 628. 
A View of the Lumbar and Ischiatic Plexuses 
and the Branches op the former. 

1. The Lumbar Plexus. 

2. The Ischiatic Plexus. 
3.3. Abdomino-Crural Nerves. 

4. The External Cutaneous Nerve (Inguino- 
Cutaneous). 
5.6.7. Cutaneous Branches from 

8. The Anterior Crural Nerve. 

9. The Geni to-Crural Nerve, or Spermaticus 
Externus. 

10.10. The lower termination of the Great Sym- 
pathetic. 

11. The Uiacus Internus Muscle. 

12. The three broad Muscles of the Abdomen. 

13. The Psoas-Magnus Muscle. 

14. Bodies of the Lumbar Vertebrae. 

15. The Quadratus Lumborum Muscle. 

16. The Diaphragm. 

17. The Sartorius. 

Page 



FIG. 629. 
A View of the Branches of th« Ischiatic 
Plexus to the Hip and back of the Thigh. 

1.1. Posterior Sacral Nerves. 

2. Nervi Glutei. 

3. The Internal Pudic Nerve. 

4. The Lesser Ischiatic Nerve, giving off the 
Perineal Cutaneus, and 

5. The Ramus Femoralis Cutaneus Posterior. 

6. Great Ischiatic Nerve. 



FIG. 630. 
A View of the Anterior Crural Nerve and 
its Branches. 

1. Point where the Nerve comes out under Pou- 
part's Ligament. 

2. Division of the Nerve into its Branches. 

3. The Femoral Artery. 

4. The Femoral Vein. 

5. The Branches of the Obturator Nerve. 

6. The Nervus Saphenus. 

199. 



EMORY UNIVERSITY 

l " ^LHGlm MEDICAL LIBRARY 



FIG. 631. 



FIG. 632. 



FIG. 633. 



FIG. 634. 



§1 







NERVES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY. 



FIG. 631. 

A View of the Anterior Tibial Nerve. 

1. The Peroneal Nerve. 
2.3. The Anterior Tibial Nerve accompanying the , 
Artery of the same name. { 

FIG. 632. 

A View of some of the Branches of the Pop- 
liteal Nerve. 

1. The Popliteal Nerve. 
2.3. Terminations of the Ramus Femoralis Cuta- { 
neus Posterior. 

4.5. The Saphenous Nerve. 

6.6. The External Saphenous or Communicans 
Tibise. 



FIG. 633. 

A View of the Posterior Tibial Nerve, in 
the back of the Leg. 

1.2. Indicate its course; the upper part of the 
Peroneal Nerve being seen to the Right. 



FIG. 634. 

A View of the termination of the Posterior 
Tibial Nerve in the Sole of the Foot. 

1. Inside of the Foot. 

2. Outer side of the Foot. 

3. The Heel. 

4. Internal Plantar Nerve. 

5. External Plantar Nerve. 

6. Branch to the Flexor Brevis Muscle. 

7. Branch to the outside of the Little Toe. 

8. Branch to the space between the Fourth and 
Fifth Toes. 

9.9.9. Digital Branches to the remaining Spaces. 
10. Branch to the internal side of the Great Toe. 



Page 200 



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